Tozzia carpathica 

Scope: Global & Europe
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Magnoliopsida Scrophulariales Scrophulariaceae

Scientific Name: Tozzia carpathica Woł.
Common Name(s):
English Carpathian Tozzia
Tozzia alpina L. ssp. carpathica Dostál
Taxonomic Notes: The genus Tozzia is a systematically relatively isolated plant group, including only two closely related species: T. alpina and T. carpathica, evaluated by some authors as two subspecies within a single species. Species of the genus Tozzia are distinguished morphologically by the size and colour of flowers. Their geographic range does not overlap: T. alpina occurs in montane zones from the Pyrenees to the western part of former Yugoslavia, T. carpathica is distributed in the Carpathians and in the southern Balkan mountains.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Data Deficient ver 3.1
Year Published: 2011
Date Assessed: 2011-03-28
Assessor(s): Bilz, M.
Reviewer(s): Bazos, I., Delipetrou, P. & Collett, L.
Contributor(s): Melnyk, V., Juffe Bignoli, D., Stevanović, V., Ferakova, V., Hodálová, I., Mereďa, P. & Eliáš, P.
European regional assessment: Data Deficient (DD)
EU 27 regional assessment: Data Deficient (DD)

Tozzia carpathica's natural range lies in the Carpathians and Balkan Mountains. This species is classed as Data Deficient as there are declines everywhere as evidenced in the species being marked as threatened in several national red list. There is no information on whether the species has strong and abundant populations anywhere. Furthermore, data from Romania and Bulgaria is missing. The main threats to this species are forestry clearance, removal of forest undergrowth, and canalisation. More information on the current population size, trend and the overall rate of decline is needed to review whether it would qualify for threatened under Criterion A.


Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Tozzia carpathica's natural range lies in the Carpathians and Balkan Mountains. It is found in Poland, Slovakia, Romania, Ukraine, Serbia, Bulgaria and Greece.
In the Ukraine Carpathians it grows in the subalpine belt from 1,140-1,890 m asl in  the mountain massif Chornogora.
In Slovakia its distribution is patchy in the Západné Beskydy Mts (surroundings of Oravská Lesná, Zákamenné, Oravská Polhora and Oravice, on Mt. Kubínska hoľa), in Krivánska Malá Fatra Mts, Chočské vrchy Mts (Úplazíky Nature Reserve, Jalovská dolina Valley), Čergov (Mt. Čergov) and in the Bukovské vrchy Mts (Mereďa and Hodálová 2011).
In Poland, the species occurs on Mt. Babia Góra and in the Bieszczady Mts., with additional smaller populations in the Beskid Śląski Mts. and Beskid Żywiecki Mts. (Kalinka and Nowak 2004).
In north-central Greece, it is found at Varnous Mts (Kalo Nero peak, 5 km south to south-southeast of Kortsa Toumpa peak), north Pindos (Smolikas). The species is apparently rare in Greece and has a small extent of occurrence of 300 km², a small area of occupancy of 12 km², and small number of locations.
Countries occurrence:
Bulgaria; Greece (Greece (mainland)); Poland; Romania; Serbia; Slovakia; Ukraine (Ukraine (main part))
Additional data:
Upper elevation limit (metres):1890
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:In Poland, it has been estimated that the population consists of 10,000 flowering stems (Commission of the European Communities 2009). In Slovakia, the species has been recorded in 20 localities (Commission of the European Communities 2009). Typically more than 100 individuals were noted at the various localities. The size of the species populations and their number are more or less stable (Mereďa and Hodálová 2011). In Ukraine, it has been recorded in eight localities. There is no data on population size in Greece. The sole references are since the 1980s (Strid and Franzén 1982). On the other hand, the distribution area may be larger since it occurs at parts of Greece which are still not thoroughly surveyed.
Current Population Trend:Unknown
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:The species is found in flood plains and montane stream margins rarely also in dwarf pine and alder stands and moist forests on wet, nutrient-rich, neutral to alkaline soils, in the montane vegetation belt. Also in shady ravines and along rivulets in subalpine meadows 1,900-2,050 m on various substrates. The plant has an interesting life cycle, containing both a parasitic and a semiparasitic phase.
It is not known on which host species the Carpathian Tozzia parasitizes but they are probably species of the genera Petasites, Adenostyles and Cicerbita (Mereďa and Hodálová 2011).

This plant grows in the following Habitats Directive listed habitats (Commission of the European Communities 2009):
  • 6430 Hydrophilous tall herb fringe communities of plains and of the montane to alpine levels
  • 91E0 Alluvial forests with Alnus glutinosa and Fraxinus excelsior (Alno-Padion, Alnion incanae, Salicion albae)

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: No information available regarding its use or trade.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The main threats to this species are forestry clearance, removal of forest undergrowth, canalisation and their natural processes (Commission of the European Communities 2009).

In Slovakia there is not a serious threat to the habitats. Inconsiderate timber felling and also complete shading of the species sites can be harmful to the localities (Mereďa and Hodálová 2011).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Tozzia carpathica is listed on Annex II of the Habitats Directive. In Slovakia the plant is classified as Near Threatened; it occurs in five Natura 2000 sites covering 76.5% of its localities (Mereďa and Hodálová 2011). In Bulgaria, Tozzia alpina ssp. carpathica is listed as Vulnerable (VU) B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii) in the national red list (Petrova and Vladimirov 2009). Tozzia alpina ssp. carpathica is Critically Endangered in Serbia (V. Stevanović pers. comm. 2010). It is not included in the Hungarian Red List.

Citation: Bilz, M. 2011. Tozzia carpathica. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2011: e.T162210A5558373. . Downloaded on 20 September 2018.
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