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Dianthus lumnitzeri

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
PLANTAE TRACHEOPHYTA MAGNOLIOPSIDA CARYOPHYLLALES CARYOPHYLLACEAE

Scientific Name: Dianthus lumnitzeri
Species Authority: Wiesb.
Taxonomic Notes: It is known as Dianthus praecox ssp. lumnitzeri in Slovakia and also as D. plumarius ssp. lumnitzeri and D. plumarius ssp. regis-stephani. There is some taxonomic disagreement if this is a species or a subspecies. But taxonomic studies are underway at the University of Heidelberg and the Corvinus University in Budapest.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Data Deficient ver 3.1
Year Published: 2013
Date Assessed: 2010-06-22
Assessor(s): Dostalova, A., Bernhardt, K.G. & Király, G.
Reviewer(s): Bilz, M. & Ferakova, V.
Contributor(s): Ferakova, V., Mereďa, P., Hodálová, I. & Eliáš, P.
Justification:

European regional assessment: Data Deficient (DD)
EU 27 regional assessment: Data Deficient (DD)

It is widespread and stable, most of the populations are included in protected areas but it is still subject to a few threats. However, it is currently assessed as Data Deficient as the taxonomy of Dianthus lumnitzeri needs to be clarified.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is a pre-Carpathian subendemic and native to Slovakia, Czech Republic, Austria and Hungary. Total geographic range is 1,194 km² (Commission of the European Communities 2009). In Slovakia, 46 sites are recorded (Polák and Saxa 2005), 12 of them were selected for monitoring in five year intervals. The pure type is supposed to occur only at the locus classicus (Devin castle rock near Bratislava). There are about 20 microlocalities in the Malé Karpaty Mts.

In the Czech Republic, it is found at four sublocalities. In Austria, it occurs only in Hainburger Berge, where it is quite common. The information for Hungary is for D. plumarius ssp. regis-stephani, but there is no data for the subspecies lumnitzeri.
Countries:
Native:
Austria; Czech Republic; Hungary; Slovakia
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The overall population size is stable.

In Slovakia, the populations are stable at most places. According to Polák and Saxa (2005) most of the localities have hundreds of individuals, on only seven sites there are less than 50 individuals. In Czech Republic, there are less than 300 individuals with a stable trend. There are two localities where it was planted. In Hungary, it is found in five small regions but there is no actual data about this species. The populations have a stable trend in Austria.
Population Trend: Stable

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This plant grows in tufts and usually occurs on rock-outcrop vegetation with Festuca pallens, narrow-leaved dry grasslands, Sesleria grasslands, shallow rock soils on limestone in hilly areas. It can be found in the following Habitats Directive listed habitats (Commission of the European Communities 2009):
  • 6190 Rupicolous pannonic grasslands (Stipo-Festucetalia pallentis)
  • 6240 Sub-Pannonic steppic grasslands
  • 8160 Medio-European calcareous scree of hill and montane levels
  • 8210 Calcareous rocky slopes with chasmophytic vegetation
Systems: Terrestrial

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This Dianthus sp. is sometimes collected and planted in private gardens but the transfer of adult plants is usually unsuccessful.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): There are a few threats affecting this plant. Small scale collection from the wild for horticultural use is minimising the number of individuals. Invasive species, closing of the tree canopy, high numbers of game species, and recreational activities impact this plant. Forestation with pine poses a threat at some sites. Natural succession in steppic grassland communities leads to increased competition.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Dianthus lumnitzeri is listed as priority species on Annex II of the Habitats Directive.
In Slovakia and Austria, it is protected and classed as Vulnerable in the national red lists. It occurs in many nature reserves and four areas of European importance (89% of localities) in Slovakia and is also found in protected areas in Austria. Ex situ conservation is carried out by the University of Vienna. In the Czech Republic, it is listed as Endangered, is protected, and found in sites of community importance and protected areas. It is also strictly protected in Hungary, but classed as Data Deficient. All the Hungarian localities are in Natura 2000 sites and protected areas.
Taxonomic research to determine its status of species or subspecies is underway.

Citation: Dostalova, A., Bernhardt, K.G. & Király, G. 2013. Dianthus lumnitzeri. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 02 October 2014.
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