|Scientific Name:||Primula scandinavica|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Near Threatened ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Ericsson, S. & Bilz, M.|
|Reviewer(s):||Aronsson, M. & Lutz, M.L.|
European assessment: Near Threatened (NT)
EU 27 assessment: Vulnerable (VU) B2ab(ii,iii,iv,v)
Primula scandinavica is endemic to Norway and Sweden. It is rare in Sweden and more common in Norway. In both countries the habitat of the species is declining and there is an overall declining population trend. In Norway, Primula scandinavica has experienced a strong decline since the 1950s and a continuing decline of 10-20% is suspected in the next 15 years. The abandonment of grazing activities and subsequent overgrowth is the main threat to the species in Norway. It is therefore assessed as Near Threatened approaching Criterion A4c.
In the EU 27, Primula scandinavica is found in Sweden. The area of occupancy (AOO) is 200 km² and the extent of occurrence (EOO) is 26,000 km². It occurs at 50 localities and is severely fragmented. The population counts 5,000 individuals and a decline in area of occupancy, quality of habitat, number of locations and the number of mature individuals was suspected in the past and seems to continue. The reason for the declines are not known but climate change could lead to future population declines. It is therefore assessed as Vulnerable.
Primula scandinavica is endemic to Norway and Sweden. It occurs on two regions west to the mountains between Sweden and Norway. It is rare in Sweden and more common in Norway. In Norway, it is found from Rogalandsheiene to Tromsø (Artsdatabanken 2010).
The AOO in Sweden is 200 km² and the EOO is 26,000 km². It occurs at 50 localities and grows up to 1,400 m asl (ArtDatabanken 2010). There are no numbers for the geographic range in Norway available.
|Upper elevation limit (metres):||1400|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||In Sweden, there is a population of 5,000 individuals and a decline in AOO, quality of habitat, number of locations and the number of mature individuals was suspected in the past and seems to continue. Climate change could lead to future population declines (ArtDatabanken 2010).
In Norway, Primula scandinavica has experienced a strong decline since the 1950s, that still continues at a lower rate though, and most of its habitat is threatened. It increased its AOO strongly when outfield grazing became popular but with the abandonment of those activities it is only found in natural habitats again. The generation length was set to five years and a continuing decline of 10-20% is suspected in the next 15 years (Artsdatabanken 2010).
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This perennial herb species is characteristic for alpine environments in Sweden and is found in alkaline alpine and subalpine grasslands (Commission of the European Communities 2009). It is also found in rocky coastal areas, rock ledges (especially south-facing limestone cliffs), on established sand dunes, along streams and rivers, and in pastureland (Artsdatabanken 2010, ArtDatabanken 2010).|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Yes|
|Generation Length (years):||5|
|Major Threat(s):||In Norway, the abandonment of grazing activities and subsequent overgrowth is the main threat to the species (Artsdatabanken 2010). From Sweden, no actual threat has been described and the reasons for the decline are not clear. Climate change has been named as a potential future threat (ArtDatabanken 2010).|
|Conservation Actions:||Primula scandinavica is listed on Annex II of the Habitats Directive. It is listed as Vulnerable B2ab(ii,iii,iv,v) in Sweden (Gärdenfors 2010). In Norway, it is assessed as Near Threatened approaching A4c (Artsdatabanken 2010).|
|Citation:||Ericsson, S. & Bilz, M. 2013. Primula scandinavica. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T162034A5537464. . Downloaded on 30 November 2015.|
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