|Scientific Name:||Euphorbia skottsbergii Sherff|
|Infra-specific Taxa Assessed:|
|Taxonomic Source(s):||Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. and Lorence, D.H. 2005 onwards. Flora of the Hawaiian Islands website. Available at: http://botany.si.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/hawaiianflora/index.htm.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable B1ab(iii,iv,v) ver 3.1|
Euphorbia skottsbergii is assessed as Vulnerable. The taxon is endemic to the islands of Oʻahu, Molokaʻi, and Kahoʻolawe and was historically known from Maui. The taxon has an extent of occurrence of 10,080 km². It has experienced severe and ongoing decline in habitat and numbers due to the impacts of invasive plants and animals, fire, drought, and development. This qualifies the taxon for a ranking of Vulnerable under criterion B1ab(iii,iv,v).
|Range Description:||An Hawaiiuan endemic restricted to 5-200 m, on the islands of Oʻahu, Molokaʻi, Maui, and Kahoʻolawe.|
Native:United States (Hawaiian Is.)
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Subpopulations are in decline on Oʻahu, Molokaʻi, Kahoʻolawe. Taxon is thought to be extinct on Maui.|
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Uncommon in coastal vegetation and dry shrubland, apparently restricted to calcareous substrates.|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Yes|
Threats include fire, drought, development, ungulates, climate change, and natural disasters such as tsunamis and hurricanes. Fortini et al. (2013) characterized this taxon as vulnerable to climate change (vulnerability index 0.641).
|Conservation Actions:||Euphorbia skottsbergii subsp. skottsbergii is on the U.S. Endangered Species List, and also on the State of Hawaiʻi Endangered Species List. One of the subpopulations occurs in a protected area (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Refuge), and it is managed and monitored by the Hawaiʻi State Division of Forestry and Wildlife. Ex situ cultivation and propagule storage is ongoing. Outplantings have occurred, and have produced viable offspring. Further research is needed on general ecology, life history, population size, distribution, and trends; population genetics, and threats.|
|Citation:||Sporck-Koehler, M. 2016. Euphorbia skottsbergii. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T16201591A78749191.Downloaded on 16 July 2018.|
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