Euphorbia skottsbergii 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Magnoliopsida Malpighiales Euphorbiaceae

Scientific Name: Euphorbia skottsbergii Sherff
Infra-specific Taxa Assessed:
Taxonomic Source(s): Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. and Lorence, D.H. 2005 onwards. Flora of the Hawaiian Islands website. Available at:

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable B1ab(iii,iv,v) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2016-03-21
Assessor(s): Sporck-Koehler, M.
Reviewer(s): Chau, M.
Euphorbia skottsbergii is assessed as Vulnerable. The taxon is endemic to the islands of Oʻahu, Molokaʻi, and Kahoʻolawe and was historically known from Maui. The taxon has an extent of occurrence of 10,080 km². It has experienced severe and ongoing decline in habitat and numbers due to the impacts of invasive plants and animals, fire, drought, and development. This qualifies the taxon for a ranking of Vulnerable under criterion B1ab(iii,iv,v).

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:An Hawaiiuan endemic restricted to 5-200 m, on the islands of Oʻahu, Molokaʻi, Maui, and Kahoʻolawe.
Countries occurrence:
United States (Hawaiian Is.)
Additional data:
Number of Locations:3
Lower elevation limit (metres):5
Upper elevation limit (metres):200
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Subpopulations are in decline on Oʻahu, Molokaʻi, Kahoʻolawe. Taxon is thought to be extinct on Maui.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:1350Continuing decline of mature individuals:Yes
Population severely fragmented:Yes
Continuing decline in subpopulations:Yes
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:UnknownAll individuals in one subpopulation:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Uncommon in coastal vegetation and dry shrubland, apparently restricted to calcareous substrates.
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s):

Threats include fire, drought, development, ungulates, climate change, and natural disasters such as tsunamis and hurricanes. Fortini et al. (2013) characterized this taxon as vulnerable to climate change (vulnerability index 0.641).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Euphorbia skottsbergii subsp. skottsbergii is on the U.S. Endangered Species List, and also on the State of Hawaiʻi Endangered Species List. One of the subpopulations occurs in a protected area (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Refuge), and it is managed and monitored by the Hawaiʻi State Division of Forestry and Wildlife. Ex situ cultivation and propagule storage is ongoing. Outplantings have occurred, and have produced viable offspring. Further research is needed on general ecology, life history, population size, distribution, and trends; population genetics, and threats.

Citation: Sporck-Koehler, M. 2016. Euphorbia skottsbergii. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T16201591A78749191. . Downloaded on 16 July 2018.
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