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Pulsatilla grandis 

Scope: Global
Language: English
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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Magnoliopsida Ranunculales Ranunculaceae

Scientific Name: Pulsatilla grandis
Species Authority: Wender.
Common Name(s):
English Greater Pasque Flower
Synonym(s):
Pulsatilla vulgaris ssp. grandis (Wender.) Zamels
Taxonomic Notes:

In Slovakia the group Pulsatilla grandis is represented by three closely related species: P. grandis, P. slavica and P. subslavica. Pulsatilla grandis is the most thermophilous species and occurs in southern parts of Slovakia, whereas P. slavica is the most cryophilic representative of this triad and is distributed in northern parts of  the country.  The Large-flowered Pasque Flower easily hybridizes with other species of the genus growing on the common localities. In Slovakia there are hybrids with P. patens and P. subslavica.


Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2011
Date Assessed: 2010-06-24
Assessor(s): Dostalova, A. & Király, G.
Reviewer(s): Bilz, M. & Lutz, M.L.
Contributor(s): Jogan, N., Melnyk, V., Ferakova, V., Eliáš, P., Mereďa, P. & Hodálová, I.
Justification:

European regional assessment: Least Concern (LC)
EU 27 regional assessment:
Least Concern (LC)

This European endemic has a relatively restricted distribution and is classed as threatened in various countries at the edge of its range such as Germany, Czech Republic, Slovenia, Slovakia, and Ukraine. However, the stronghold of the species is in Hungary and despite a wide range of threats, it is unlikely to go extinct in the near future. Monitoring of the population is highly recommended; it is already included in several protected areas and protected under various national laws.



Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Pulsatilla grandis is native to central and eastern Europe. The stronghold of the populations is in Hungary. In Ukraine, it grows in the Volhynian-Podolian, Chotyn and Pridnieprovian uplands.

The species occurs in the Pannonian region of southern Slovakia and in the foothills of the southern part of the Western Carpathians. The northern limit of its distribution area passes from Skalica through the Brezovské kopce Hills, southern parts of the Strážovské vrchy Mts, Slovenské rudohorie Mts and the Nízke Beskydy Mts to the Vihorlat Mts (Mereďa and Hodálová 2011)
Countries occurrence:
Native:
Austria; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Croatia; Czech Republic; Germany; Hungary; Moldova; Poland; Romania; Serbia (Serbia); Slovakia; Slovenia; Ukraine (Ukraine (main part))
Additional data:
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The population has been estimated for the following countries (Commission of the European Communities 2009):
  • Czech Republic: 200 localities with several tens of thousands individuals and a slowly declining trend.
  • Hungary: Between 4,000,000 and 5,500,00 individuals and a slowly declining trend.
  • Slovenia: four confirmed subpopulations with a few hundred plants but less than 2,000 individuals in total. The trend is stable since the subpopulations are protected.
In Germany, the species is only found in Bavaria where it is rare but apparently stable (Bundesamt für Naturschutz 2010). The Ukrainian populations are small in area (20-50 m²) and host a low number of individuals (50-100 individuals). Population density is 1-9 mature individuals/m² (V. Melnyk pers. comm. 2010). In Croatia, it is not threatened and in Bosnia and Herzegovina it is considered rare (Flora Croatica Database 2010).

In Slovakia the population size ranges from tens to thousands of individuals (Mereďa and Hodálová 2011).
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This perennial plant can be found in dry grasslands, rocky outcrops, open thermophilous oak and pine forests (Commission of the European Communities 2009). It also grows in shrubland, sometimes forest clearings or orchards and is found among vegetation of the Quercetae pubescenti-petrae class or in steppes in communities of the Festuco-Brometea class.

In Slovakia this plant is found in dry, rocky scrub and grassland slopes, and, rarely, in clearings in oak forests, on different substrates (andesites, dolomites, limestones etc.) from lowland to the submontane vegetation belt (Mereďa and Hodálová 2011).

This plant grows in the following Habitats Directive listed habitats (Commission of the European Communities 2009):
  • 6110 Rupicolous calcareous or basophilic grasslands of the Alysso-Sedion albi
  • 6190 Rupicolous pannonic grasslands (Stipo-Festucetalia pallentis)
  • 6210 Semi-natural dry grasslands and scrubland facies on calcareous substrates (Festuco-Brometalia) (* important orchid sites)
  • 6240 Sub-Pannonic steppic grasslands
  • 6250 Pannonic loess steppic grasslands
  • 6520 Mountain hay meadows
  • 8210 Calcareous rocky slopes with chasmophytic vegetation
  • 91H0 Pannonian woods with Quercus pubescens
  • 91I0 Euro-Siberian steppic woods with Quercus spp.
Systems:Terrestrial

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: Pulsatilla grandis is collected from the wild to plant in private gardens. Many of the areas where the species grows are protected and fenced off.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Modification of cultivation practices and abandonment of pastoral systems are the main threats. Habitat alteration due to overgrowth or forestation with woody plants (mainly Scots pine and black pine) is a further threat reported from Slovakia. Invasive species such as Robinia pseudoacacia and Ailanthus altissima also affect the species. Trampling of the species by people that are attracted to the plants is an issue. It is also impacted by burning, either accidentally from recreational activities or deliberately to remove dry grass and shrubs to prepare pasture land. Urbanisation is a minor threat as is agriculture and the use of fertilisers. Quarrying and mining are threats in calcareous soils but on the other hand it can create new habitats for the species.

Another threat is the collection of the plants. Cultivated species from the Pulsatilla vulgaris group are often planted in gardens and hybridisation is a potential threat to the species but there is no current evidence that this is affecting the populations.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions:

Pulsatilla grandis is listed on Annex II of the Habitats Directive and under Appendix I of the Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats (Bern Convention).

The species is protected in Hungary but not listed as threatened on the Red List. It is also classed as Least Concern in Croatia (Nikolić and Topić 2005). In the Czech Republic (Holub and Procházka 2000), Germany (Ludwig and Schnittler 1996), and Slovenia (Skoberne 1996), it is classed as Endangered on the national Red Lists and protected at national level. In Slovakia, it is classified as Vulnerable (Mereďa and Hodálová 2011). It is included in the Red Data Book of Ukraine (Diduch 2009) as Vulnerable, and is protected in the Medobory reserve, in the national park Podilski Tovtry, in some protected areas and nature monuments.

Most sites are included in protected areas and Natura 2000 sites. Monitoring and management are in place for many sites at the edges of the range.

Citation: Dostalova, A. & Király, G. 2011. Pulsatilla grandis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2011: e.T162014A5530433. . Downloaded on 10 December 2016.
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