Dryopteris fragrans 

Scope: Europe
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Polypodiopsida Polypodiales Dryopteridaceae

Scientific Name: Dryopteris fragrans (L.) Schott
Common Name(s):
English Fragrant Woodfern
Polypodium fragrans L.
Taxonomic Notes: This is a diploid species.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern (Regional assessment) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2017
Date Assessed: 2016-07-07
Assessor(s): Väre, H., Bento Elias, R., Christenhusz, M., Dyer, R., Ivanenko, Y., Rouhan, G. & Rumsey, F.
Reviewer(s): García, M. & Troìa, A.
Contributor(s): Kemppainen, E.

European regional assessment: Least Concern (LC)
EU 28 regional assessment: Least Concern (LC)

Although its distribution range is narrow and disjunct in Europe, the subpopulations are stable. In Finland it is present in a strict nature conservation area, and the subpopulations are not under immediate threat in the EU 28. Its Russian subpopulations are widespread and often in inaccessible sites that are not threatened. It is therefore listed as Least Concern in Europe and the EU 28, even though the species has a marginal occurrence in Europe.

Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:

Dryopteris fragrans is a widespread species in the arctic-alpine belt of the Northern Hemisphere, found across North America and in Asia from the Ural Mountains across Siberia to the Chinese Himalayas. In Europe it is only found in a small area in northern Finland where it has an extent of occurrence (EOO) of 800 km² and an area of occupancy (AOO) of 44 km² (Commission of the European Communities 2009). The nearest subpopulations to the Finnish ones are found in the Ural Mountains in Russia (Kalliola 1937), where the species occurs fragmented and over an extensive area. The overall AOO is estimated to be around 350 km². Genetic studies have shown that the Finnish subpopulations are most closely related to subpopulations in Mongolia (Juslén et al. 2011).

Countries occurrence:
Finland; Russian Federation (East European Russia, European Russia)
Additional data:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:350
Range Map:161984-1

Population [top]

Population:There are two subpopulations in northern Finland, one small and and one large, and several others in the northern Ural range (Christenhusz and Raab-Straube 2013). In Finland, the subpopulations have been calculated to be around 2,700 tufts, and subpopulations are stable there (Commission of the European Communities 2009). The known subpopulations in Russia are scattered over an extensive area in the Urals and eastwards (Jalas and Suominen 1972). The overall population trend is stable.
Current Population Trend:Stable
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:2700
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This fern grows on alpine rock outcrops and boulder fields. The species grows among stones and boulders, sometimes hidden by rocks. It also grows on the surface of rocks covered by lichens, but it does not grow on recently disturbed rocky landslides. The undisturbed habitat is indicated by a thick cover of lichens and mosses (Kalliola 1937, Jonsell 2000). In Russia, it is often found on screes and in rock crevices and usually on calcareous slopes (Y. Ivanenko pers. comm. 2016).

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: It is included in the catalogue of World economic plants (Wieresma and León 2013), but its uses are not documented.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): This species faces no immediate threats, although climate warming might be a future threat considering that this is a cold-climate species.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Dryopteris fragrans is listed on Annex II of the Habitats Directive. The species is well-protected and no further conservation actions are needed.

In Finland this species is classed as Near Threatened (Rassi et al. 2010) because the AOO is restricted (44 km²), with a total of 36 sites having been recorded. There are c. 2,700 mature individuals and the subpopulations are currently stable. All but one Finnish subpopulation are in the Kevo Strict Nature Reserve (open to the public only by permission). Climate change is a potential future threat but may be overcome with well-planned assisted migration. It is protected by law (Nature Conservation Decree 913/2005) in Finland.

In Russia it was also classified as threatened due to its rarity (class 3 in the Russian rank) in the Komi Republic (Taskaev 2009). The Russian subpopulations should be monitored.

Citation: Väre, H., Bento Elias, R., Christenhusz, M., Dyer, R., Ivanenko, Y., Rouhan, G. & Rumsey, F. 2017. Dryopteris fragrans. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T161984A85452921. . Downloaded on 21 July 2018.
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