|Scientific Name:||Armeria pseudarmeria|
|Species Authority:||(Murray) Mansf.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Endangered B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii) ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Bilz, M. & Cuttelod, A.|
Armeria pseudarmeria is a narrow endemic to the area of Lisbon and Sintra in Portugal. Its extent of occurrence is 557 km² and the area of occupancy is less than 500 km². The total number of populations is not known but there are bigger ones with moderate conservation status and several isolated smaller populations. Overall, the subpopulations are severely fragmented. The main threats are abandonment of traditional agriculture leading to vegetation succession and competition and cause further fragmentation. The invasive species Carpobrotus edulis, collection of the plant, urbanisation pose further threats. The species is classed as Endangered.
|Range Description:||This plant is endemic to Portugal where it occurs in the region around Lisbon and Sintra (ICN 2006). Its extent of occurrence is 557 km² and the area of occupancy is less than 500 km² (Commission of the European Communities 2009).|
Native:Portugal (Portugal (mainland))
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
The biggest subpopulation is estimated to host around 80,000 individuals, distributed more or less continuously from Rebolo to Vale da Ribeira da Ursa. The second biggest population is located on basaltic soil in Magoito/Samarra, and is thought to have several thousand individuals. Of further importance are the populations located in the region of Malveira (Loures). The remaining subpopulations are isolated from each other by a few kilometres and have sizes in the order of hundreds of individuals (ICN 2006).
The populations are declining. The subpopulations are severely fragmented, one of the reasons might be the loss of ecological corridors by removing dry stone walls that traditionally separated the agricultural fields.
|Habitat and Ecology:||
It is found in soils originated from granular igneus rocks. This plant grows in the following Habitats Directive listed habitats (Commission of the European Communities 2009):
|Use and Trade:||The scapes of this flower are collected for commercial and ornamental purposes in the area of Azóia and Cabo da Roca. The actual level of harvest is unknown (ICN 2006).|
|Major Threat(s):||Abandonment of the traditional mosaic agriculture with forestry and pastoral activities, leads to vegetation succession and the encroachment of shrubs which pose a competition to Armeria pseudarmeria. It is also competing with the invasive species Carpobrotus edulis which limits the growth of juveniles and affects population dynamics. Collection of the plant is a further threat, as is overgrazing (ICN 2006), urbanisation, and installment of wind turbines.|
Armeria pseudarmeria is listed on Annex II of the Habitats Directive and under Appendix I of the Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats (Bern Convention) and is legally protected in Portugal.
The populations at Azóia and Cabo da Roca should be monitored regarding the harvest levels. Further measures for the species sites include the promotion of traditional agriculture and extensive grazing, control and removal of Carpobrotus edulis, and protection of the sites where needed (ICN 2006).
|Citation:||Caldas, F.B. 2013. Armeria pseudarmeria. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 31 August 2015.|
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