Crocus etruscus 

Scope: Global, Europe & Mediterranean
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Liliopsida Asparagales Iridaceae

Scientific Name: Crocus etruscus Parl.
Taxonomic Source(s): WCSP. 2017. World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Available at:

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2011
Date Assessed: 2010-07-15
Assessor(s): Carta, A. & Peruzzi, L.
Reviewer(s): Abeli, T. & Bilz, M.
Crocus etruscus is an Italian endemic that is found in central-southern Tuscany. It has an extent of occurrence of 1,892 km² and an area of occupancy of 120 km². The species occurs in isolated subpopulation nuclei but the populations are stable. However, the plant is potentially threatened by habitat degradation, predation by wild boar, and small-scale wood plantations. Crocus etruscus is therefore assessed as Near Threatened approaching Criterion B1a+2a.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This Italian endemic is found in central-southern Tuscany, in the provinces of Grosseto, Livorno, Pisa and Siena. The major localities where the species is found are Monte Calvi (Livorno), Monte Leoni (Grosseto), Monte Amiata (Grosseto) and Massa Marittima (Grosseto). The species records for Isola d'Elba (Tuscany) and Emilia-Romagna are wrong and refer to C. ilvensis (Peruzzi and Carta 2011).

Crocus etruscus has an extent of occurrence of 1,892 km² and an area of occupancy of 120 km².
Countries occurrence:
Italy (Italy (mainland))
Additional data:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:120
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The mean density of the individuals is about 10 individuals/m² and they occur in isolated subpopulation nuclei. The populations are stable.
Current Population Trend:Stable
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:Yes

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:The plant, which flowers from February until April, grows mostly in Querco robori-Fagetea sylvaticae and Quercetea ilicis woods. It occurs also in woods dominated by Castanea sativa.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The plant is potentially threatened by habitat degeneration and reduction and by predation by wild boar (Sus scrofa). Small-scale wood plantations may threaten this plant in the future.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Crocus etruscus is listed on Annex IV of the Habitats Directive and under Appendix I of the Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats (Bern Convention).

The species is protected by law at the national and sub-national level. Research is being carried out into the taxonomy, population numbers and range, habitat status and threats. It is recommended that further research is carried out in these areas, together with a monitoring programme.

Citation: Carta, A. & Peruzzi, L. 2011. Crocus etruscus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2011: e.T161939A5516365. . Downloaded on 15 October 2018.
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