|Scientific Name:||Silene holzmannii Heldr. ex Boiss.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Endangered B2ab(iii,v) ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Peraza Zurita, M.D. & Bilz, M.|
This species is restricted to the Agean Islands of Greece and the area of occupancy is estimated to be smaller than 500 km2. Despite the relatively inaccessible habitat where this species is found, grazing is a constant threat to the quality of the habitat of this species, the size of the population and the population size. The populations are often isolated on the islands and thus severally fragmented. It is therefore listed as Endangered.
|Range Description:||This species is endemic to small islets in the Aegean Sea, Greece (Commission of the European Communities 2009). It is a small island specialist. The area of occupancy is estimated to be smaller than 500 km2.|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The number of individuals is not stable as annual plants often undergo fluctuations. There are some small subpopulations in one locality, while on other islands it can be common. The size of the population is subject to meteorological conditions and human influences. On the island of Stomata which is not influenced by humans, the population was 5-300 individuals in 1996 and a year later it was more than 2,000 individuals due to favourable conditions (Phitos et al. 2009). The populations are often isolated on the islands and thus severally fragmented.|
|Current Population Trend:||Unknown|
|Habitat and Ecology:||It grows mainly on small islands in coastal areas at sea level. It can tolerate very poor and rocky limestone substrate, even salt spray (Commission of the European Communities 2009).|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Yes|
|Major Threat(s):||The major threat is grazing by goats and rabbits, that also cause degradation of the habitat due to trampling (Phitos et al. 2009). Despite the relatively inaccessible habitat where this species is found, grazing animals are a constant threat to the quality of the habitat of this species, the size of the population and the population size.|
Silene holzmannii is listed as priority species on Annex II of the Habitats Directive and under Appendix I of the Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats (Bern Convention).
It is protected under the Greek law presidential decree 69/81 and listed as Endangered on the Red List of Greece (Phitos et al. 2009). Eighteen of the islands where it is found are Natura 2000 sites. It is cultivated in the Diomides Botanic Garden in Athens.
Access to the species sites should be controlled to avoid further damage by grazing. Ex situ conservation of seeds is necessary.
|Citation:||Bazos, I. 2011. Silene holzmannii. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2011: e.T161910A5512572.Downloaded on 21 May 2018.|
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