|Scientific Name:||Botrychium simplex E.Hitchc.|
Bortychium simplex E.Hitchc. ssp. kannenbergii (Klinsm.) Fraser-Jenk.
Botrychium kannenbergii Klinsm.
Botrychium reuteri Payot
Botrychium tenebrosum A.A.Eaton
|Taxonomic Source(s):||Pteridophyte Phylogeny Group (PPG I). 2016. A community-derived classification for extant lycophytes and ferns. Journal of Systematics and Evolution 54(6): 563–603. DOI: 10.1111/jse.12229.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Endangered A2c (Regional assessment) ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Christenhusz, M., Bento Elias, R., Dyer, R., Ivanenko, Y., Rouhan, G., Rumsey, F. & Väre, H.|
|Reviewer(s):||García, M. & Troia, A.|
European regional assessment: Endangered (EN)
EU 28 regional assessment: Endangered (EN)
Botrychium simplex is a rare species with a scattered distribution throughout Europe. Subpopulations are small, often consisting of single individuals. It is listed as threatened on all available national Red Lists and the subpopulations are declining almost everywhere. In a few countries, the species is only known from one single locality, sometimes a single individual. The main threats are changes to its habitat such as reforestation, abandonment of grazing activities which lead to overgrowth and competition, or intensification of agriculture which leads to eutrophication. Extreme fluctuations in the population size have been reported in Fennoscandia. The number of mature individuals seems to be less than 10,000 in total as often only very few individuals are found. As it is extinct in several countries and several Red Lists show a higher threatened category than on earlier assessments, it is inferred that its extent of occurrence (EOO), area of occupancy (AOO) and habitat quality have been reduced more than 50% the last three generations (60-90 years).
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||This fern species has a circumpolar northern temperate and boreal distribution, being found in Europe, Asia and North America. In Europe, it occurs mainly near the coasts up to 65° N in Sweden, Finland, Denmark, the Baltic States, Poland and Russia. It is present in Iceland and southern Norway and is found as a glacial relict species in central European mountains (France, Switzerland, Italy). In the south it extends to the eastern Pyrenees in France, Corsica and Slovenia (Käsermann and Moser 1999). It is not clear whether this species is present in the Spanish Pyrenees (Castroviejo et al. 1986).|
In France, it occurs at 10 localities in Corsica (massif du San Petrone, Niolu), Midi-Pyrénées (Aveyron, plateau de l’Aubrac), Pyrénées-Orientales (massif du Carlit); Rhônes-Alpes (Isère, Haute-Savoie, vallée de Chamonix) and Savoie (Beaufortin) between 1,300 and 2,000 m. In Germany, it is known from only one site near Paderborn, where it was rediscovered in 1993 (Frey et al. 2006, Bundesamt für Naturschutz 2008). In Greece, there is only one locality in Smolikas, in the northwest close to the Albanian border at 2,000 m. There are two stations in Italy (Trentino Alto Adige) and one in Lithuania and Latvia. The species is extinct in Belgium (formerly in Flanders and Brussels; Van Landuyt et al. 2006), the Czech Republic, Estonia, Poland, Slovenia and Switzerland. In Poland there were approximately 25 known localities in the past of which only two were found until the 1980s: Wierzchowo Lake near Szczecinek and at Kiedrowickie Lake near Lipnica in Bory Tucholskie (Tucholskie Forests). Both localities have extensively been searched during the last 20 years but the species has not been found again and therefore this plant is considered as possibly extinct in Poland (Kalinka and Nowak 2004). In Slovenia, one locality was found in the mid 20th century in the Julian Alps, but this is now extinct. In Switzerland, one locality has been confirmed but in 1970-1980, three to four others have been observed at elevations of 1,500-2,300 m. The species has not been recorded there since 1971 and is therefore believed to have disappeared. However, it is possible that there might be undetected subpopulations (Käsermann and Moser 1999).
The area of occupancy (AOO) in Europe is only ca 660 km², but this includes historical collections and thus is likely to be an overestimation. In the EU 28, the AOO is ca 400 km².
Native:Austria; Belarus; Denmark; Estonia; Finland; France (Corsica, France (mainland)); Germany; Greece (Greece (mainland)); Iceland; Italy (Italy (mainland)); Latvia; Lithuania; Norway; Russian Federation (European Russia, Kaliningrad, Northwest European Russia); Sweden
Possibly extinct:Belgium; Poland; Slovenia; Switzerland
Regionally extinct:Czech Republic
|Population:||Due to changes in land management and agricultural practices, this species is disappearing from many sites, although it is difficult to monitor because plants do not emerge every year. Individuals are difficult to count due to their small size and irregular appearance. The following population information is available for different countries (Commission of European Communities 2009):|
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Botrychium simplex prefers fresh, moderately dry to wet, alkali-poor, sandy clay soils. Its habitats are acidic, oligotrophic mat-grass communities, heather and gorse heathlands, meadows, pastureland, shrubland, the banks of rivers and lakes and the edges of bogs and forests. It mainly occurs as single plants, but it produces many spores. The establishment of this fern is dependent on symbiotic fungi and it is therefore difficult to propagate it via spores or vegetatively, which makes reintroduction difficult if not impossible (Komarov 1968, Käsermann and Moser 1999, Klotz et al. 2002, Frey et al. 2006, Y. Ivanenko pers. comm. 2016). Its elevation limits are 850-2,300 m.|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Yes|
|Generation Length (years):||20-30|
|Use and Trade:||This species is not used.|
|Major Threat(s):||The modification of cultivation practices such as the abandonment of pastoral systems or the increased use of fertilisers is threatening this species. Eutrophication probably damages the symbiotic fungi on which Botrychium species depend. Trampling and overgrazing by livestock has negative effects. The conversion of its natural habitat into forest plantations or tourist developments (e.g. roads, ski slopes) leads to habitat loss. Changes to its natural habitat and a loss of quality are also caused by landfill, drying out, drainage or management of water levels. Collection of the plant and peat extraction are local threats (Käsermann and Moser 1999, Commission of the European Communities 2009).|
Botrychium simplex is listed on Annex II of the Habitats Directive and under Appendix I of the Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats (Bern Convention). It is listed on the following national red lists:
|Citation:||Christenhusz, M., Bento Elias, R., Dyer, R., Ivanenko, Y., Rouhan, G., Rumsey, F. & Väre, H. 2017. Botrychium simplex. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T161906A85446630.Downloaded on 19 November 2017.|
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