Orectolobus halei 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Chondrichthyes Orectolobiformes Orectolobidae

Scientific Name: Orectolobus halei
Species Authority: Whitley, 1940
Common Name(s):
English Banded Wobbegong, Gulf Wobbegong
Orectolobus devisi Ogilby, 1916
Orectolobus ornatus subspecies halei Whitley, 1940
Taxonomic Notes: Orectolobus halei was previously synonymized with O. ornatus and was believed to be the adult form of O. ornatus. Taxonomic revision of New South Wales species showed that O. halei differs from O. ornatus in colour pattern (O. halei has black edges around saddles and is less freckled), an adult size larger than 120 cm total length, more dermal lobes at the posterior preorbital group (4–6), precaudal vertebrae count (>106), spiral valve count (>25), and two supraorbital knob. Morphometrically, O. halei has a shorter pelvic fin to anal fin interspace, larger pectoral fins, larger head dimensions, and relatively larger claspers in mature specimens (Huveneers 2006).

Orectolobus halei is also often confused with O. maculatus but differs with less dermal lobes at the posterior preorbital group (4-6) and a distinctive brownish upper body colouration with well-defined, darker brown saddles surrounded by black edges, and containing paler markings that lacks whitish rings and blotches (unlike O. maculatus) (Huveneers 2006).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2015
Date Assessed: 2015-03-23
Assessor(s): Huveneers, C., Pollard, D.A., Gordon, I., Flaherty, A.A. & Pogonoski, J.
Reviewer(s): Walls, R.H.L. & Kyne, P.M.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Kyne, P.M., Walls, R.H.L., Simpfendorfer, C. & Chin, A.
The Banded Wobbegong (Orectolobus halei) is an Australian endemic species. Previous records from Papua New Guinea, Indonesia, and Japan are either misidentified Ornate Wobbegong (O. ornatus) or a different species of wobbegong. The Banded Wobbegong is a biologically sensitive species, site-attached within its relatively shallow water range (0–195 m depth), and caught in commercial and recreational fisheries as a target species and as bycatch. In New South Wales (NSW), wobbegong (unspecified species) catch combining all fishing methods and fisheries declined by more than 50% between 1997-1998 and 2007-08, after which it stabilised to around 20 tonnes. This led to all three species of wobbegong occurring in NSW, including the Banded Wobbegong, to be regionally listed as Vulnerable. However, fishing effort reported as the number of days fished also declined between 1990-91 and 2008-09, resulting in the catch rate being relatively constant around 15 kg per fishing days from 1990-91 until 2009. Fishing effort and ensuing catch rate should, however, be used with caution because it is coarsely reported as the number of days fished and does not account for the number of hooks used or soak times. Since September 2006, wobbegongs have been included in the daily trip limit for a specific list of shark species to one tonne for a 24 hour period and two tonnes for 48 hours or greater. New management regulations in May 2008 introduced a daily limit of six wobbegongs. A minimum size limit of 180 cm total length for the Banded Wobbegong implemented between 2008 and 2013 protected juveniles. Although the minimum size limit is no longer applicable, wobbegongs are no longer targeted to the same extent as they used to because of the trip limit implemented in 2008. In addition, further investigation of the NSW fishing catches and effort revealed that catch per unit effort did not decrease as thought in the previous assessment. Wobbegongs are not targeted and catches are low in other Australian states (Western Australia, Queensland, South Australia, and Victoria). As a result, there is no evidence to infer or suspect population decline of the Banded Wobbegong, and current catches are relatively low, resulting in a listing of Least Concern.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2009 Near Threatened (NT)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: The Banded Wobbegong is an Australian endemic, recorded from warm temperate eastern Australia with confirmed reports from Moreton Bay, Queensland, and likely reports from Hervey Bay southwards to Flinders Island, Tasmania, and northwest to Norwegian Bay, Western Australia (Last and Stevens 2009). Previous sources (Last and Stevens 1994, Compagno 2001) show that the global distribution of this species (formerly known as the Ornate Wobbegong O. ornatus) includes Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, and Japan. However, wobbegongs (family Orectolobidae) from these areas are either misidentified Ornate Wobbegong or other undescribed species.
Countries occurrence:
Australia (Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia)
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Indian Ocean – eastern; Pacific – southwest; Pacific – western central
Lower depth limit (metres): 195
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: A phylogeographic study showed no evidence of subpopulations (Corrigan 2009), but the Ornate Wobbegong population was previously considered to be juveniles of the Banded Wobbegong (Huveneers 2007). There is no information available on the overall population size or structure of this species, but based on catch data from various Australian fisheries there is no reason to believe the population is declining (see Threats section for more detail).
Current Population Trend: Stable
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: The Banded Wobbegong occurs inshore on the continental shelf to at least 195 m depth (J. Chidlow, pers. comm., 2011) and appears to prefer clear water reefs (Kuiter 1993), being often found in clearer water than the closely related Spotted Wobbegong (O. maculatus) (Lieske and Myers 1994). The Banded Wobbegong is a common inshore bottom-dwelling shark of continental waters, found in bays, on macroalgal rocky reef areas, coral reefs (including lagoons and reef flats, reef faces, and reef channels), and around offshore islands (Compagno 2001). This nocturnal species rests on the bottom during the day in caves, under ledges on reefs, and in trenches, undertaking nocturnal excursions away from resting areas. In a study in Port Stephens, New South Wales (NSW), the sympatric Ornate Wobbegong was shown to prefer sponge gardens, artificial structures, and barren boulder habitats with a high topographic complexity and crevice volume (Carraro and Gladstone 2006). However, the Ornate Wobbegong did not seem to select habitat on the basis of prey availability, therefore habitat selection may be related to predator avoidance (Carraro and Gladstone 2006). A survey of wobbegongs showed evidence of site attachment with divers observing individual sharks in exactly the same positions over consecutive dives (Ecology Lab 1991).

The Banded Wobbegong was previously believed to mature at about 175 cm total length (TL) (Last and Stevens 1994, Compagno 2001) due to confusion with the Ornate Wobbegong. Further studies estimated the length at which 50% of the population is mature at about 175 cm TL in NSW waters (Huveneers et al. 2007) and 182 cm TL in Western Australian waters (Chidlow 2003). Gestation lasts about 10–11 months with parturition occurring during September–October (Huveneers et al. 2007). The species is lecithotrophic viviparous (Huveneers et al. 2007, 2011) with a litter size ranging from 17–47 (mean 31.6) and a size at birth of about 28 cm TL (Huveneers et al. 2011). Maximum length is at least 206 cm TL, with reports to 290 cm TL requiring confirmation (Last and Stevens 2009).

Growth parameters were estimated from 253 vertebrae collected off New South Wales and Victoria. Taking into account biologically meaningful estimations of L∞ and k, the model with the best fit to the data was the logistic growth function, and estimated growth parameters were: 212 cm TL for L∞ and 0.20 for k, and the maximum number of growth bands was 27 (Huveneers et al. 2013).Verification and validation undertaken using edge and marginal increment analyses, as well as chemical marking of captive and wild wobbegongs, suggested that growth band deposition in orectolobids is more likely to be linked to somatic growth than seasonality (Huveneers et al. 2013). 
Systems: Marine

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade:

Historically, the attractive skin has been used as decorative leather (Last and Stevens 2009). However, it is unknown if this practice is still occurring. In Australia, wobbegong flesh is sold locally for human consumption through ‘fish and chip’ and fresh fish retail outlets. Wobbegong fins have no known commercial value.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Commercial fishing is probably the main threat to this species in eastern Australian waters. Observed site fidelity in wobbegongs is likely to increase their susceptibility to fishing pressure. On an Australia-wide basis, wobbegongs are commonly caught in trawls, beach seines, gillnets, lobster pots and traps, by hook-and-line, and also by spearfishing. 

In New South Wales, three wobbegong species (Spotted Wobbegong, Ornate Wobbegong, and Banded Wobbegong) are taken in the Ocean Trap and Line Fishery (OTL), in the fish and prawn sectors of the Ocean Trawl Fishery, and very few in the Estuary General Fishery. The majority of commercial wobbegong catches occur in the OTL Fishery, where they have historically been taken as both a target species by setline methods and as byproduct by other methods (NSW Department of Primary Industries, unpubl. data). The New South Wales total catch of wobbegongs, combining all fishing methods and fisheries, has declined from about 120 tonnes in 1990-91 to about seven tonnes in 2008-09 after which catches stabilized and have remained around 20 tonnes up to 2013-2014. As a result, the previous assessment in 2007 listed the Spotted and Banded Wobbegongs as Vulnerable regionally (for New South Wales) because of a 55% decline in catches in less than a decade (Pease and Grinberg 1995, NSW Department of Primary Industries, unpubl. data). However, fishing effort reported as the number of days fished also declined between 1990-91 and 2008-09, resulting in catch rate being relatively constant, around 15 kg per fishing day from 1990-91 until 2009. Catch rates after 2009 increased to about 70 kg per day, but are not directly comparable to values prior to 2009 as catch reporting changed from monthly to daily summaries in July 2009. Prior to July 1997, catches from other jurisdictions landed in New South Wales were also included. Fishing effort and ensuing catch rate should, however, be considered with caution because it is coarsely reported as the number of days fished and does not account for the number of hooks used or soak time. Additionally, the historical aggregation of the wobbegong species in catch data until July 2009 is a further complicating factor. Based on species-specific reporting from July 2009, catches of the Banded Wobbegong ranged from 62-93 kg per fishing day (mean 80.5 kg) and 8.9-12.3 tonnes per year (mean 10.9 tonnes), showing no declines. 

Wobbegongs are not targeted in Queensland, but have been recorded in low numbers in the bycatch of prawn trawl fisheries (Kyne et al. 2002). Small wobbegongs are sometimes caught by crab pots in Southeast Queensland and Moreton Bay, but are usually discarded (J. Stead, pers. comm., 2007).

In South Australia, wobbegongs are infrequently sold at the Adelaide Fish Market. Commercial catches of wobbegong are small ranging ~0.5-4 tonnes, with the highest yearly catch being in the mid 1980s (A. Tsolos, pers. comm., March 2015). In southern Australia, a small number of wobbegongs are taken within the Southern and Eastern Scalefish and Shark Fishery (SESSF). Estimated mean annual catch of the Banded Wobbegong in the SESSF during 2000-06 was 638 kg (Walker and Gason 2007). 

The Banded Wobbegong is a small component of the bycatch of the Western Australian temperate demersal gillnet and demersal longline fisheries. The species, along with other wobbegong species occurring within the region, is primarily caught by demersal gillnets off the southern and lower west coasts of Western Australia. Wobbegongs (unspecified species) were historically also caught by a few vessels using demersal longlines in the same fishery until the use of that gear was restricted in 2006. Fisheries-dependent surveys of southwest Western Australian fisheries reported that the Banded Wobbegong constituted 1.2-1.3% and 0.5% of total elsamobranch catch from gillnet and longline gear, respectively (McAuley and Simpfendorfer 2003, Jones et al. 2010). The Western Australian temperate demersal gillnet and demersal longline fisheries mean annual wobbegong catch is about 40 tonnes per year (range 28-68 tonnes) between 1999 and 2014 and does not show any sign of decline (Department of Fisheries WA Fishery Status Report 1998-99 to 2013-14, e.g., Braccini et al. 2014). Although wobbegong catches are generally not reported to species level, small wobbegongs (<150 cm) are selectively discarded alive (Chidlow et al. 2007, R. McAuley, pers. comm.) due to low flesh recovery rates from smaller individuals. Thus, the Banded Wobbegong and the Spotted Wobbegong are believed to be a major component of those aggregated catches. If discarded, post-release survival of orectolobid species is thought to be high. Smaller orectolobids also occur in commercial rock lobster pots throughout temperate coastal Western Australian waters (Chidlow et al. 2007). However, as all sharks and rays are now commercially protected throughout WA, wobbegongs cannot generally be retained by State-managed commercial fishing vessels unless they are operating in the managed shark fishery. 

The National Recreational and Indigenous Fishing Survey (Henry and Lyle 2003) reported that 5,174 wobbegongs (all species combined) were caught and kept by recreational fishers in southern Australian states during the survey time period (May 2000 to April 2001), comprising 1,944 from New South Wales, 999 from Queensland, 252 from South Australia, and 1,978 from Western Australia. The retained catch of wobbegongs by recreational fishers off the west coast of Australia has been estimated at approximately 1,000 animals per year (Sumner and Williamson 1999), while the estimated annual catch during 2011-12 by Western Australian recreational fishing from boat licence holders was 1,535 wobbegongs, with 20% or 304 individuals retained (Ryan et al. 2013). 

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions:

Until late 2006, there were no management strategies specifically regulating the wobbegong commercial fishery in New South Wales. The only regulation in place was a recreational bag limit of two wobbegongs per day (later reduced to zero in September 2007) and a commercial gear limit of no more than ten lines each with a maximum of six hooks when setlining within three nautical miles of the coast. There were no gear limits outside three nautical miles, but as of 2008, amendments to the share management plans instated a maximum of 1,200 hooks and 30 traps per endorsement holder. Since September 2006, wobbegongs have been included in the daily trip limit for a specific list of shark species to one tonne for a 24 hour period and two tonnes for 48 hours or greater. New South Wales Department of Primary Industries also recommended that fishers in the OTL and Lobster fisheries have in their codes of practice to release wobbegongs less than 130 cm TL caught in fish traps. Since July 2007, the use of wire trace, or other trace made of metal type materials, is prohibited to decrease instances of gut-hooking. 

As a result of the observed decline in New South Wales wobbegong catches, and following a study of the biology and ecology of orectolobids in New South Wales (Huveneers 2007), new management regulations were introduced in May 2008 for the three species of wobbegong for the Lobster and OTL fisheries, including a daily limit of six wobbegongs and a minimum size limit of 180 cm TL for the Ornate Wobbegong and the Banded Wobbegong, and 130 cm TL for the Spotted Wobbegong. The similar minimum size limit for the Ornate Wobbegong and the Banded Wobbegong was selected due to potential difficulties for fishers to differentiate the two species and was based on the size at maturity of the Banded Wobbegong. In April 2010, amendments to the Lobster and OTL Share Management Plans intended for the six carcass trip limit to remain in place, but the minimum size limit lapsed with the fishing closure in May 2013. In March 2011, amendments to the Ocean Trawl Share Management Plan provided for the same six carcass trip limit as the Lobster and OTL fisheries (V. Silberschneider, pers. comm., February 2015).

In Western Australia, all sharks and rays are commercially protected under Western Australian law. This regulation essentially restricts the retention of all shark and ray products by commercial fishing vessels other than those operating in the State's managed shark fishery. Relative to the area known to be occupied by the Banded Wobbegong, shark fishing effort (mainly demersal gillnet) is sparsely distributed and managed via time-gear input controls. For example, the Metropolitan Fishing Zone, between Lancelin and south of Mandurah, was closed to commercial line and gillnet fishing in 2007 as part of a fishing reform package to ensure sustainability of fish for the future. The managed shark fishery's catches and fishing effort are also routinely monitored through analyses of statutory daily/trip logbook data and the fishery's target stocks are subject to regular stock assessments. The use of commercial shark fishing gear (large mesh gillnets and demersal longlines) is prohibited north of 26°30'S latitude to 120°E longitude off the north coast, which may include the northern extent of the species' range. The use of metal snoods (gangions) is commercially prohibited throughout Western Asutralian waters (except for a small amount of demersal longline effort in the managed shark fishery and pelagic mackerel troll lines). 

Site attached species such as wobbegongs may also benefit from habitat protection and suitably designed and implemented no-take zones, where all forms of harvesting or fishing are excluded (Huveneers et al. 2006, Lee 2014). Some protection may be offered by those protected areas already being implemented for the Grey Nurse Shark (Carcharias taurus) in New South Wales. This species is potentially protected in the following Australian marine protected areas, marine parks and nature reserves:

Moreton Bay Marine Park, Qld
Cape Byron Marine Park, Byron Bay, northern NSW
Julian Rocks Aquatic Reserve, off Byron Bay, northern NSW
Solitary Islands Marine Park, north of Coffs Harbour, NSW
Port Stephens-Great Lakes Marine Park, north of Sydney, central NSW
Jervis Bay Marine Park, south of Sydney, NSW
Batemans Marine Park, south of Sydney, NSW
Shark Bay Marine Park, WA
Ningaloo Marine Park, WA
Jurien Bay Marine Park, WA
All Victorian marine parks
All South Australian marine parks

Possibly also occurs in the following areas:
Great Sandy Marine Park, Qld
Hamelin Pool Marine Nature Reserve, WA
Shoalwater Islands Marine Park, WA
Marmion Marine Park , WA
Muiron Islands Marine Management Area, WA

Recreational fishers may also have had an effect on this species in the past. An in-possession limit of two wobbegong sharks per person was introduced for recreational fishers in New South Wales and reduced to zero in September 2007. This new regulation may help to alleviate any adverse effects caused by recreational fishing practices. In Western Australia, recreational fishers are subject to a daily bag limit of two sharks per person, and in Queensland, one shark per person.

Citation: Huveneers, C., Pollard, D.A., Gordon, I., Flaherty, A.A. & Pogonoski, J. 2015. Orectolobus halei. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T161709A68638176. . Downloaded on 28 November 2015.
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