|Scientific Name:||Hemitrygon laevigata|
|Species Authority:||(Chu, 1960)|
Dasyatis laevigata Chu, 1960
|Taxonomic Source(s):||Last, P.R., Naylor, G.J.P. and Manjaji-Matsumoto, B.M. 2016. A revised classification of the family Dasyatidae (Chondrichthyes: Myliobatiformes) based on new morphological and molecular insights. Zootaxa 4139(3): 345-368. http://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4139.3.2.|
|Taxonomic Notes:||The genus Hemitrygon formerly was a junior synonym of Dasyatis (Kottelat, 2013); it was resurrected by Last et al. (2016) in their revision of the family Dasyatidae.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Near Threatened ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Ishihara, H., Wang, Y., White, W.T. & Ebert, D.A.|
|Reviewer(s):||Valenti, S.V. & Fowler, S.L.|
This is an amended version of the 2006 assessment to accommodate the recent change in genus name from Dasyatis to Hemitrygon.
The Yantai Stingray (Hemitrygon laevigata) is a small (to 30 cm disc width) stingray occurring from the Yellow Sea to the East China Sea and in the Taiwan Straits at depths of 1-50 m. It is taken as bycatch in inshore benthic fisheries throughout large areas of its known range. In Japan it is generally discarded because of its small size, but in China it is retained and marketed locally for human consumption. Historically this species was commonly observed at local markets in China, but it is observed far less frequently now. This species has been confused with Red Stingray (Hemitrygon akajei) in Japan, making it difficult to assess population trends. Given continued, intense inshore fishing pressure throughout much of the species' range, anecdotal evidence for population declines in China and its low fecundity, this species is assessed as Near Threatened on the basis of suspected declines approaching 30% (close to meeting the criteria for (VU A2d+4d). Further data need to be collected to accurately determine population trends throughout this species' range.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||Northwest Pacific: Yellow Sea to East China Sea off Japan and sometimes in Taiwan Strait (Furumatsu et al. 2006, Zhu and Meng 2001).|
Native:Japan; Taiwan, Province of China
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:|
Pacific – northwest
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Apparently common in southern Japan (Furumatsu et al. 2006) and northern China (Y. Wang pers. obs. 2007).|
Stingrays are difficult to identify and this species has been confused with Hemitrygon akajei in Japan, making it difficult to determine population trends (H. Ishihara pers. obs. 2008).
In China, there is anecdotal evidence to suggest that this species has declined. Historically this species was commonly observed at local markets in China, but it is observed far less frequently now (Y. Wang pers. obs. 2007).
|Current Population Trend:||Unknown|
|Habitat and Ecology:||A small stingray found in coastal inshore waters, from estuaries to 50 m depth (Furumatsu et al. 2006). Males measure up to 20 cm disc width (DW) and females up to 30 cm DW (Furumatsu et al. 2006). Little else is known of the biology. Presumably only up to one or two young (W. White. Pers. obs. 2007).|
|Use and Trade:||This species is marketed for human consumption.|
Taken as bycatch in inshore fisheries targeting flat fish and other benthic fish in Japan (H. Ishihara pers. obs. 2007). This species is generally discarded because of its relatively small size, but when they are retained and landed, they are marketed for human consumption (H. Ishihara pers. obs. 2007).
This species also is captured and marketed in China and has been observed in Shanghai fish market (Zhu and Meng 2001). This is one of three species of dasyatid captured and marketed in China (Y. Wang pers. obs. 2007).
The East China Sea and Yellow Seas are intensively exploited (NOAA 2004ab). Heavy fishing mortality has resulted in a shift from an older, traditional fishery based on high-value demersal species to faster-growing, smaller, and lower-value species such as shrimp and cephalopods (NOAA 2004a). The Yellow Sea was once one of the most intensively exploited Large Marine Ecosystems (LME) in the world and is considered severely impacted in terms of overfishing, with destructive fishing practices (NOAA 2004b).
Pollution and habitat modification may also pose a threat to this species. The Yellow Sea is affected by both land and sea based sources of pollution and habitat loss, resulting from extensive economic development in the coastal zone (NOAA 2004b). Waste water and sewage discharge into the East China Sea, with eutrophication and frequent red tides as results of coastal development also threaten marine life, particularly in coastal areas and estuaries (NOAA 2004a).
No conservation measures in place.
Research is required on this species' life-history and threats. Further assessment and monitoring of catch and population trends is also needed.
Listed as Vulnerable A2d+4d in China, although there are no implemented measures for sharks and rays in China (Wang and Xie 2004).
|Citation:||Ishihara, H., Wang, Y., White, W.T. & Ebert, D.A. 2016. Hemitrygon laevigata. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T161618A104119407.Downloaded on 26 June 2017.|
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