|Scientific Name:||Paratrygon ajereba|
|Species Authority:||(Müller & Henle, 1841)|
Trygon ajereba Müller & Henle, 1841
|Taxonomic Notes:||Previous taxonomic issues relating to Paratrygon aiereba have been resolved by Rosa (1985).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Data Deficient ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Góes de Araújo, M.L. & Rincón, G.|
|Reviewer(s):||Kyne, P.M., Cavanagh, R.D. & Fowler, S.L. (Shark Red List Authority)|
The Manzana Ray (Paratrygon aiereba) is a common, widespread species of the Amazonas Basin and the only species in this monotypic genus of the Potamotrygonidae, the Manzana Ray attains a size of about 130 cm disc width and 60 kg. Its export for the ornamental fish trade is illegal from Brazil, but it is regularly exported from Peru and from Colombia, where it does not occur in the wild. It is also taken by commercial fisheries and, like other potamotrygonids, habitat degradation and persecution are of concern. Although widespread, this species faces numerous threats, and, given its large size and low fecundity (two offspring every second year), it is potentially vulnerable to the effects of these threats. However, due to an overall lack of information, the species is assessed as Data Deficient and should be reassessed in the near future as new information comes to light.
|Range Description:||South America inland waters: Amazon-Solimões River and tributaries in Brazil and the Rio Orinoco drainage in Venezuela, Northern Bolivia, Peru and Ecuador.
FAO Area: 03.
Native:Bolivia, Plurinational States of; Brazil; Ecuador; Peru; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||This species is widespread around the Amazonas-Solimões River and tributaries. Around the Rio Negro in Brazil this species occurs in at least 42 tributaries, and is known to occur in high densities.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
This species occupies shallow warm waters with temperatures around 25ºC. Juveniles inhabit areas with sandy beaches and small creeks while adults inhabit main river channels and sandy beaches, mainly during the night when it uses these areas to forage. In the Rio Negro, the species apparently shows daily movements between deeper and shallow water.
Information on reproductive biology is known only from Brazil and Venezuela. Reproductive mode is matrotrophic viviparity with trophonemata. The duration of the reproductive cycle is around two years. Gestation period is estimated as nine months. Ovarian fecundity is 3-5 and the average uterine fecundity is two embryos. Sexual segregation has been observed in this species. Size at birth 16 cm DW; size at maturity 60 cm DW (males) and 72 cm DW (females); maximum size is 130 cm DW.
Diet includes small fishes, shrimps, worms and insect larvae.
|Use and Trade:||aquarium use|
|Major Threat(s):||Habitat degradation. Persecution in popular tourism areas due to fear of injury. This species is taken as bycatch in commercial fisheries with trawl nets along the Solimões-Amazonas River. Commercial fisheries retain and market this species. Its export for the ornamental fish trade is illegal from Brazil, but it is regularly exported from Peru and Colombia.|
The capture and exportation of this species for the ornamental fish trade is illegal in Brazil. However, local people on Brazilian borders complain that specimens captured in Brazil are exported from Colombia or Peru. An international program to regulate the export of freshwater stingrays in the ornamental fish trade is necessary.
There are no regulations or controls on catches by commercial fisheries.
Habitat protection and fisheries monitoring programs are recommended.
|Citation:||Góes de Araújo, M.L. & Rincón, G. 2009. Paratrygon ajereba. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 21 October 2014.|
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