|Scientific Name:||Himantura lobistoma|
|Species Authority:||Manjaji-Matsumoto & Last, 2006|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Probably misidentified as H. uarnacoides and H. hortlei (M. Manjaji pers. obs. 2007).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable A4cd ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Manjaji, M., Fahmi, & White, W.|
|Reviewer(s):||Valenti, S.V. & Notarbartolo di Sciara, G. (Shark Red List Authority)|
This inshore stingray is known only from a restricted range in Sarawak, Borneo and Sumatra in Indonesia. Although the Tubemouth Whipray (Himantura lobistoma) is apparently relatively common where it occurs, its range and habitat are apparently restricted and have been heavily exploited during the past 20 years. It occurs in shallow, brackish water, associated with runoff from large rivers, in mangrove forest, to not more than 30 m deep. Association with this habitat makes this species highly vulnerable to habitat destruction, particularly removal of mangrove habitat. Declines are suspected as a result of significant loss of mangrove habitat (almost 30% loss of estimated combined mangrove area in Malaysia and Indonesia since 1980) through conversion of land to shrimp farms, logging and coastal development and degradation of coastal habitat. This species is also a utilised bycatch of coastal fisheries throughout its range, which are intensive and unregulated. Continuing declines of >30% are suspected, as a result of continuing high levels of exploitation and reductions in quality and extent of its habitat, warranting an assessment of Vulnerable.
|Range Description:||Western central Pacific: Apparently restricted to Sarawak, Borneo and Sumatra in Indonesia. Despite intensive field and market surveys in eastern Indonesia and Borneo, including the more northerly Malaysian state of Sabah, this species has not been recorded north of Bintulu, central Sarawak (Manjaji and Last 2006).
FAO Fisheries Area: 71.
Native:Indonesia (Kalimantan, Sumatera); Malaysia (Sarawak)
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Pacific – western central
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Common within its restricted range; most common in Sarawak (M. Manjaji pers. obs. 2007).|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
This species appears to be coastal, is found in brackish water on very muddy substrate and is associated with runoff from large rivers and mangrove forest (M. Manjaji pers. obs. 2007, Manjaji-Matsumoto and Last 2006). It occurs in very shallow waters, to not more than 30 m deep (M. Manjaji pers. obs. 2007).
Maximum size is 100 cm disc width (DW). Females mature by 70 cm DW, males by 49 cm DW and size at birth is >18 cm (Manjaji-Matsumoto and Last 2006).
|Use and Trade:||Utilised for human consumption.|
Captured in trawls and on bottom longlines (M. Manjaji and Fahmi pers. obs. 2007) and retained and utilised. Fishing pressure is generally intensive and unregulated throughout this species' range.
Habitat destruction and pollution (chemical) through aquaculture (specifically conversion of mangrove habitat into shrimp farms), mining and coastal development is a major threat to this species. This species is known to be associated with mangrove habitat in very shallow water (M. Manjaji pers. obs. 2007) and is therefore considered highly vulnerable to destruction of this habitat. Extensive areas of mangrove forest have been lost in Indonesia and Malaysia through conversion of land for shrimp farms (Malaysia, East Java, Sulawesi and Sumatra), excessive logging, urban development (Malaysia) and, to a lesser extent, conversion of land to agriculture or salt pans (Java and Sulawesi) (FAO 2007). Indonesia lost about 1,300,000 hectares of mangroves from 1980-2005 (>30% of mangrove area in 1980) and Malaysia lost about 110,000 hectares during the same period (>16% of mangrove area in 1980) (FAO 2007). This represents a loss of >30% of combined overall mangrove area in Indonesia and Malaysia. In addition to loss of mangrove forests, extensive habitat degradation through destructive fishing practices and pollution has also impacted this species' shallow water habitat.
|Conservation Actions:||None in place.|
|Citation:||Manjaji, M., Fahmi, & White, W. 2009. Himantura lobistoma. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 21 August 2014.|
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