Squalus raoulensis 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Chondrichthyes Squaliformes Squalidae

Scientific Name: Squalus raoulensis Duffy & Last, 2007
Common Name(s):
English Kermadec Spiny Dogfish
Taxonomic Source(s): Eschmeyer, W.N., Fricke, R. and Van der Laan, R. (eds.). 2018. Catalog of Fishes: genera, species, references. Updated 29 March 2018. Available at:
Taxonomic Notes: The Kermadec Spiny Dogfish (Squalus raoulensis) is superficially very similar to the Northern Spiny Dogfish (S. griffini) but is a member of the S. megalopscubensis species complex.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2011
Date Assessed: 2010-12-11
Assessor(s): Duffy, C.A.J.
Reviewer(s): Ebert, D.A. & Kyne, P.M.
The Kermadec Spiny Dogfish (Squalus raoulensis) occurs in isolated deepwater habitats in subtropical and possibly tropical regions of the Southwest Pacific remote from established deepwater fisheries. The steep, rocky nature of the Kermadec Ridge precludes bottom trawling over much of it and no commercially valuable mid-water trawl resources have been discovered on it. Bottom trawling is banned on the Kermadec and Colville Ridges until at least 2013. Given the low levels of historical fishing on the Kermadec Ridge, the abundance of this species is likely to be at or very close to unfished levels (although details of the exact population size of the species are unknown).
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:

The Kermadec Spiny Dogfish is known from the Kermadec Islands (north of New Zealand) in the Southwest Pacific, specifically around Raoul Island, and south to at least Curtis and Chesseman Islands. However, this species is potentially widespread on oceanic ridges and seamounts in the Southwest Pacific.

This species is sympatric with the larger Northern Spiny Dogfish at Raoul Island. Bottom longline and dropline catch-effort data and submersible footage indicates that Squalus spp. (probably Northern Spiny Dogfish and Kermadec Spiny Dogfish) are abundant at upper slope depths around the Kermadec Islands (Beaumont et al. 2009).

Countries occurrence:
New Zealand (Kermadec Is.)
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Pacific – southwest
Additional data:
Lower depth limit (metres):500
Upper depth limit (metres):250
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:No data are available on population size, trends and structure of the Kermadec Spiny Dogfish. Given the low level of commercial fishing conducted on the Kermadec Ridge it is likely that abundance in the New Zealand region is at or close to unfished levels.
Current Population Trend:Unknown
Additional data:

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:

The habitat and ecology of the Kermadec Spiny Dogfish is poorly known. This is a small, demersal upper slope species, only known from oceanic ridges and seamounts in the subtropical Southwest Pacific. Specimens have been collected at 250–500 m, and it appears to be most abundant above 300 m depth. However, the full extent of the depth range is unknown. Males mature at 65.1 cm total length (TL). Female size at maturity unknown; female paratype was immature at 72.9 cm TL. Diet and reproductive biology are unknown.


Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: There is no known trade in the Kermadec Spiny Dogfish.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s):

At present the only potential anthropogenic threat to the Kermadec Spiny Dogfish is commercial fishing. However there is little or no commercial line fishing in demersal habitats on the Kermadec Ridge, and bottom trawling is banned on the Kermadec and Colville Ridges until at least 2013.

With the exception of the Kermadec Islands Marine Reserve, the entire Kermadec Arc system is subject to a number of mineral exploration licences, including oil and hydrothermal vent minerals. No mining is being undertaken in this area at present.

The Kermadec Arc has a large number of large, active submarine and subaerial volcanoes.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions:

Bottom trawling is banned on the Kermadec and Colville Ridges until at least 2013, and part of the population of the Kermadec Spiny Dogfish is protected within a relatively large no-take marine protected area (Kermadec Islands Marine Reserve).

Collection of taxonomic material from suitable areas of habitat in the Southwest Pacific is required to determine the full distribution of this species. Research on all aspects of the species’ biology, particularly age and growth is required.

Citation: Duffy, C.A.J. 2011. Squalus raoulensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2011: e.T161469A5431296. . Downloaded on 16 October 2018.
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