Paragomphus sinaiticus 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Arthropoda Insecta Odonata Gomphidae

Scientific Name: Paragomphus sinaiticus
Species Authority: (Morton, 1929)
Regional Assessments:
Common Name(s):
English Sinai Hooktail, Sinai Lobetail
Mesogomphus sinaiticus Morton, 1929

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2013
Date Assessed: 2012-04-10
Assessor(s): Boudot, J.-P., Clausnitzer, V., Dijkstra, K.-D.B., Suhling, F., Samraoui, B. & Schneider, W.
Reviewer(s): Tognelli, M., García, N. & Suhling, F.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Alomari, K.

The species is known from 33 localities in a highly fragmented range with difficult access, covering part of Africa (Sudan),  Arabia (Oman, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates and Yemen), the Sinai in Egypt and western Iran. The overall number of records increased during the last decade due largely to an increase in resident observers in south-east Arabia, showing that at least this area is still only partly explored for species. It is expected that with increased collecting efforts new localities will be discovered in this area as well as in western Iran, where the species was recently discovered (2001-2002). New search in Niger is not possible due to the unstable situation of the country. It is likely that future field work will produce new data and localities in the Sudanese Red Sea Hills and the Sinai. At present, the global range of this species has been estimated in more than 10 locations (approximately 28) and its AOO is 132 km2 (considering a 2x2km2 grid size). Habitat destruction and drought have been observed to contribute to the continuing decline of the species' habitat quality in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula (Schneider and Boudot pers. obss.), and is affected by the decrease of rainfall and the increase of water demand due to human development in the Sahel and southern Arabia. No severe fragmentation or extreme fluctuation of the population has been confirmed. Therefore, the species qualifies for being listed Near Threatened because it meets subcriterion B2b(iii) with the information available at present. This species was previously assessed as VU A2c+3c, but the new records show an apparent broader distribution that previously known. Even though the sites from where it has been recorded are far apart and threats are known to affect local subpopulations, these are not considered to have a significant impact on the global population at present. Therefore, following a precautionary approach, the global category Near Threatened is believed to be the most adequate for this species that is probably Least Concern.

Previously published Red List assessments:
2006 Vulnerable (VU)
1996 Vulnerable (VU)
1994 Rare (R)
1990 Rare (R)
1988 Rare (R)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Paragomphus sinaiticus is known from Saharan Africa (Niger, Sudan) to the Sinai (Egypt, type locality), the Arabian Peninsula (Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Yemen and Oman) and western Iran in several isolated localities or aggregates of localities. Its whole range is highly fragmented. In Africa it is restricted to the Air Mountains in Niger and the Red Sea Hills in eastern Sudan. In Asia it is confined to the Sinai (Egypt), Iran (a single isolated locality) and is scattered in isolated localities or aggregates of localities over Arabia. The overall range of the species includes 33 distinct localities distributed over 4,900,000 km², with a total of 37 records, among which 17 date from 1990 onwards and 13 from 2000 onwards. There was a significant increase of records during the last decade, largely due to an increase of observers in Oman and the Emirates. Three of five of the Nigerien localities are located in the National Natural Reserve of the Air and of the Tenere, which is presently not properly managed due to the political situation in the north of the country.
Countries occurrence:
Egypt (Sinai); Iran, Islamic Republic of; Niger; Oman; Saudi Arabia; Sudan; United Arab Emirates; Yemen (North Yemen)
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO): No
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO): Unknown
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO): No
Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO): Unknown
Continuing decline in number of locations: No
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations: Unknown
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Current population size is unknown.
Current Population Trend: Unknown
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals: No
Extreme fluctuations: No Population severely fragmented: Yes

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: The species is known from oases and gueltas in wadis in desert and semi-desert environment.
Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater
Movement patterns: Not a Migrant

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This species is not utilized.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Water management by locals (e.g., drainage, over irrigation, pollution) and drought are threats to the species. Drought in the Air region (Niger) is causing ground water levels to decline but this is not thought currently to be heavily impacting the permanent water systems. In the south of the Air region overgrazing is causing increased sedimentation, but its impact on the species is unknown.  Use of pesticides in oases is another threat. Uranium mining in Niger is taking place for now in the outskirts of the Air Mountains and not within the relevant watersheds where the species live. It should not extend within the heart of the Air Mountains, which should be efficiently protected.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Three of five of the Nigerien localities are included in the National Natural Reserve of the Air and of the Tenere, which is now mostly virtual due to the political context of the north of the country. The whole Air Mountains should be efficiently protected and removed from uranium mining projects. The low water resources in the species' range should be preserved and protected against qualitative and quantitative degradation. Research into populations' size and range, biology and ecology, habitat status and conservation, threats and trends/monitoring of the species would be valuable.

Citation: Boudot, J.-P., Clausnitzer, V., Dijkstra, K.-D.B., Suhling, F., Samraoui, B. & Schneider, W. 2013. Paragomphus sinaiticus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T16110A13373413. . Downloaded on 28 November 2015.
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