|Scientific Name:||Percnostola arenarum|
|Species Authority:||Isler, Alvarez Alonso, Isler & Whitney, 2001|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable B1ab(i,ii,iii);D2 ver 3.1|
|Reviewer/s:||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
|Contributor/s:||Alonso Alvarez, J.|
This recently described species is known from a small range, within which the extent and quality of its highly specialised habitat are declining. This combination of factors qualifies it as Vulnerable.
|Range Description:||Percnostola arenarum is known only from Loreto in Peru, from the drainage of the Rio Nanay west to the Rio Tigre, including Nauta on the bank of the Rio Maranon between those two rivers (Isler et al. 2001). The Nauta specimen, at the Museum of Natural History, had previously been tentatively assigned to P. rufifrons jensoni (Capparella et al. 1997).|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The population is estimated to number 1,000-2,499 individuals based on an assessment of known records, descriptions of abundance and range size. This is consistent with recorded population density estimates for congeners or close relatives with a similar body size, and the fact that only a proportion of the estimated Extent of Occurrence is likely to be occupied. This estimate is equivalent to 667-1,666 mature individuals, rounded here to 600-1,700 mature individuals.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||P. arenarum is found in dense, stunted terra firme forest on white sandy soil (a habitat named 'varillal' by local people), with an understorey dominated by the saplings of white sand specialists. It appears to be restricted to this habitat type, although it was also found, albeit extremely locally, in a nutrient-poor habitat termed 'irapayal' comprising taller forest with a dense understorey of irapay palm, which grows on very old, weathered clay soils as well as sandy soils (Isler et al. 2001).|
|Major Threat(s):||Based on current knowledge about this species, it has a very specialised habitat niche and a very small geographic range. The habitats in which it is found are subject to intense human activity in a region of rapid population growth. Varillal is heavily exploited for poles for building houses, and the leaves of the irapay palm are extensively harvested to make thatched roofs (Isler et al. 2001). The impact of these threats is exacerbated by the fact that the species has only been found in certain 'varillales', and even fewer 'irapayales', despite intense ornithological surveying (Isler et al. 2001). Despite protection, 200 people have entered the reserve (see Action) and carved out homesteads, illegal hunting occurs, and illegal road building and logging destroys habitat (J. Alonso Alvarez in litt. 2003).|
Conservation Actions Underway
The establishment of the Zona Reservada Allpahuayo-Mishana in 1999, which includes much of the known range of P. arenarum, was a critical step in the protection of this species. This must be followed by the resources required to manage the area (Isler et al. 2001) and enforce existing legislation. Conservation Actions Proposed
Protect in practice as well as legally the areas of habitat in which it is found from destruction and heavy exploitation. Assess the full extent of this species range and population size.
|Citation:||BirdLife International 2012. Percnostola arenarum. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 25 May 2013.|
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