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Ampedus cardinalis 

Scope: Global
Language: English
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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Arthropoda Insecta Coleoptera Elateridae

Scientific Name: Ampedus cardinalis (Schiödte, 1865)
Common Name(s):
English Cardinal Click Beetle
Synonym(s):
Ampedus coccinatus Rye 1867
Ampedus titanus Reitter 1918

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2009-06-05
Assessor(s): Mannerkoski, I., Hyvärinen, E., Alexander, K., Büche, B., Mason, F. & Pettersson, R.
Reviewer(s): Alexander, K. & Nieto, A.
Justification:
European regional assessment: listed as Near Threatened as this species is entirely dependent upon veteran trees as it inhabits decaying heartwood. This is a very specific habitat type which is already highly fragmented and subject to continuing significant decline. Although this species has a relatively wide distribution, its Area of Occupancy is small as it is only found in veteran trees which are scattered across the landscape at very low densities. The Area of Occupancy of this species has not been quantified, but it may not be much greater than 2,000 km2. The rate of loss of veteran trees has not been quantified, but it is significant, and it may potentially exceed 20% in the next ten years (= three generations). Moreover, there is very little regeneration of suitable habitat across the species' range. Once the existing veteran trees have died, there will be no replacements in many areas. Even if efforts are made now to re-plant appropriate tree species, there may still be a 'gap' during which time there would be very little suitable habitat available. Action is urgently needed to protect and appropriately manage existing veteran trees, as well as to ensure that suitable habitat continues to be available in future.

EU 27 regional assessment: listed as Near Threatened as this species is entirely dependent upon veteran trees as it inhabits decaying heartwood. This is a very specific habitat type which is already highly fragmented and subject to continuing significant decline. Although this species has a relatively wide distribution, its Area of Occupancy is small as it is only found in veteran trees which are scattered across the landscape at very low densities. The Area of Occupancy of this species has not been quantified, but it may not be much greater than 2,000 km2. The rate of loss of veteran trees has not been quantified, but it is significant, and it may potentially exceed 20% in the next ten years (= three generations). Moreover, there is very little regeneration of suitable habitat across the species' range. Once the existing veteran trees have died, there will be no replacements in many areas. Even if efforts are made now to re-plant appropriate tree species, there may still be a 'gap' during which time there would be very little suitable habitat available. Action is urgently needed to protect and appropriately manage existing veteran trees, as well as to ensure that suitable habitat continues to be available in future.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is distributed throughout Europe, ranging north to southern Scandinavia and south to Greece (Laibner 2000).

In Ukraine it occurs in the central part of the forest-steppe zone, in Donetzkyi mountain-ridge. In Hungary there are very few records known from the hilly and lowland areas. In Denmark it is present in the south. In France it is widespread but very rare and localized (Leseigneur 1972). In Italy there are very few records, mainly from central and southern areas (including Sardinia and Sicily). In the UK there are a small number of sites across lowland England, in the south-east, and the east and west Midlands.
Countries occurrence:
Native:
Albania; Belarus; Belgium; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Croatia; Denmark; France (Corsica, France (mainland)); Germany; Greece (Greece (mainland)); Hungary; Italy (Italy (mainland), Sardegna, Sicilia); Latvia; Norway; Poland; Russian Federation (Central European Russia, Kaliningrad, South European Russia); Slovakia; Spain (Spain (mainland)); Sweden; Ukraine (Ukraine (main part)); United Kingdom (Great Britain)
Additional data:
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:This is a rare species across its European range, with a very fragmented distribution.

In the UK it is a rare species with a very fragmented range and about 15 isolated populations known from modern records. Little or no suggestion of recent decline but there area a few sites with only old records, unconfirmed recently (Mendel and Clarke 1996). In Ukraine it is very rare as it is only known from four specimens. In Hungary it is very rare and the populations are small. In the Czech Republic and Slovakia it occurs sporadically in lowlands and highlands across the whole territory (Laibner 2000). In Germany it occurs sporadically in lowlands across almost the whole territory (with the exception of the north-west), with about 15-20 known localities. In Sweden there are more than 30 sites known from recent records (since 2000) in the southern part of the country. In Denmark it is rare and local.
Current Population Trend:Unknown
Additional data:

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This is an obligate saproxylic species. A heartwood decay specialist, typically found in very large old trees. The larvae develop in red-rotten heartwood of living old oaks Quercus, in smaller boughs as well as trunks.  There is a long larval period and adult dormancy; the adults remaining in their pupal cells from September until the following April, and they may normally be found under loose bark or in hollows from May to July (Alexander 2002). The larvae are  predators or necrophagous  (Dolin 1988). In Italy it is found in coniferous as well as broad-leaved trees. In Hungary virtually all known records are from red-rotten wood of very old oaks. In France larvae are found in the dry powder of red-rot in large trees of Quercus or Castanea.

It is an old growth species. English sites tend to be historic parklands and the trees are ancient open-grown examples, rather than forest situations (K.N.A. Alexander pers. comm. 2009). In the Czech Republic and Slovakia it lives in trunks of solitary old oaks in broad-leaf or mixed forests (Laibner 2000).
Systems:Terrestrial

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: Saproxylic Coleoptera tend to be popular with beetle collectors although trade is rarely an issue, the only exceptions being a few larger species of more dramatic form or colour.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s):

This species is restricted to veteran trees, so any activities which destroy these trees (e.g. cutting down avenues) is strongly detrimental to the species. The main overall threat is likely to be degradation or loss of habitat quality, involving structural changes in the tree populations arising from changing land use affecting age structures and tree density. Exploitation from forestry is often a key immediate issue, but equally damaging can be long-term changes towards canopy closure and loss of ancient trees as a result of non- or minimum-intervention management systems which all too often exclude grazing by large herbivores. Fragmentation and increasing isolation of beetle populations are also key factors.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Generally, the most important conservation measure to be recommended is the protection of large old trees of appropriate species (especially oaks, but also others), and habitat management to ensure that there is a constant or increasing supply of such veteran trees in future.

This species is listed as Vulnerable in the British Red Data Book (Shirt 1987), and as Near Threatened in Sweden.

In the UK, wood pasture and parkland are a priority habitat that is under the Government Biodiversity Action Plan. Also other conservation measures in place cover general management guidelines (K.N.A. Alexander pers. comm. 2009).

The species is present in protected areas (e.g. Hungary).

Citation: Mannerkoski, I., Hyvärinen, E., Alexander, K., Büche, B., Mason, F. & Pettersson, R. 2010. Ampedus cardinalis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T157800A5149054. . Downloaded on 21 November 2017.
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