|Scope: Global & Europe|
|Scientific Name:||Ampedus quadrisignatus (Gyllenhal, 1817)|
|Taxonomic Source(s):||2016. Encyclopedia of Life. Available at: www.eol.org. (Accessed: 28th June).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Endangered B2ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v) ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Méndez, M., Dodelin, B., Petrakis, P., Schlaghamersky, J. & Nardi, G.|
|Reviewer(s):||Nieto, A. & Alexander, K.|
European regional assessment: listed as Endangered (EN B2ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v)) as it is very rare throughout its range with only a few localities (severely fragmented) and an area of occupancy of less than 500 km². The populations are declining as well as its habitat which is threatened by forest exploitation, the removal of veteran trees and dead wood. This species is also a predator that can be affected by the decline of its prey.
EU 27 regional assessment: listed as Endangered (EN B2ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v)) as it is very rare throughout its range with only a few localities (severely fragmented) and an area of occupancy of less than 500 km². The populations are declining as well as its habitat which is threatened by forest exploitation, the removal of veteran trees and dead wood. This species is also a predator that can be affected by the decline of its prey.
|Range Description:||This species is present from France through central Europe to the forest-steppes in Ukraine (Laibner 2000).|
In Ukraine, it occurs in the Carpathians and in the south of the forest-steppe zone. In Hungary it is sporadic in the hilly and mountainous areas (O. Merkl pers. comm. 2009). In Germany it is Extinct.
Native:Austria; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Croatia; Czech Republic; France (France (mainland)); Hungary; Italy (Italy (mainland)); Montenegro; Romania; Serbia (Kosovo, Serbia); Slovakia; Switzerland; Ukraine (Ukraine (main part))
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||This is a very rare species in Europe and its population is declining.|
In Ukraine it is a very rare species; only one specimen known from the Kirovograd region in central Ukraine. In the Czech Republic there is only one recent record. In Slovakia it is known from five localities and it is rare (Laibner 2000). In Hungary all known extant populations are restricted to limited areas and the populations are small (O. Merkl pers. comm. 2009). In Italy there is one record from 1977 in southern Italy. In Greece there is a single recent record from the Peloponnesus. In France there are only two localities known; it is considered a relict species (Leseigneur 1972) - there is one locality from 1847 where it has never been found again, and the second locality is from 1965 in the Pyrenees.
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This is an obligate saproxylic species. The larvae develop in red-rotten heartwood of chestnut Castanea, oak Quercus and other broad-leaved tree species; generally with lucanid beetle larvae (Aesalus and Ceruchus). A predator of Aesalus scarabaeoides which is itself very rare, but it does not feed exclusively on this species. Pupation occurs in the autumn but the adults remain in the pupal cells in the decaying wood through the winter months. In Hungary the preferred micro-habitats are red-rotten logs of bird cherry Prunus, beech Fagus, hornbeam Carpinus, and sometimes oak, always with Aesalus scarabaeoides (O. Merkl pers. comm. 2009). In France, the larvae develop in red-rotten wood of Quercus together with Lucanid larvae (Aesalus and Dorcus parallelepipedus) (Leseigneur 1972).|
Often in remnants of oaks, always inside forests; the preferred habitats are beech-oak woods of lowlands and foothills (Laibner 2000). It prefers dark, shady stands; old growth forest and trees with a large diameter. In Hungary nearly all records are from closed, dark stands deep inside the forests, mainly in ravines (O. Merkl pers. comm. 2009).
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Yes|
|Use and Trade:||Saproxylic Coleoptera tend to be popular with beetle collectors although trade is rarely an issue, the only exceptions being a few larger species of more dramatic form or colour.|
Forest exploitation is one of the main threats, including the removal of dead wood. It is dependent on certain prey species that are locally declining.
In Hungary all populations are small and vulnerable. Removal of old logs and especially illegal over-collecting of the wintering adults are serious threats; the latter results in destruction of the red-rotten logs (O. Merkl pers. comm. 2009).
|Conservation Actions:||The preservation of veteran trees and dead wood in forests is essential. The species is present in protected areas; however in Hungary the protection is not always effective (O. Merkl pers. comm. 2009). The species is legally protected in Hungary. This species is classed as Critically Endangered in Slovakia and as Endangered in Italy.|
|Errata reason:||An errata assessment was produced in order to correct the name of one of the assessors, from 'Dodelin, J.' to 'Dodelin, B.'|
|Citation:||Méndez, M., Dodelin, B., Petrakis, P., Schlaghamersky, J. & Nardi, G. 2010. Ampedus quadrisignatus (errata version published in 2016). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T157547A101384195.Downloaded on 22 September 2018.|
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