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Vipera berus

[Regional assessment]
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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA REPTILIA SQUAMATA VIPERIDAE

Scientific Name: Vipera berus
Species Authority: (Linnaeus, 1758)
Common Name/s:
English Adder
Synonym/s:
Coluber berus Linnaeus, 1758
Vipera nikolskii Vedmederya, Grubandt & Rudayeva, 1986
Taxonomic Notes: Preliminary data on the phylogeography of the species based on mtDNA sequences identified several independent evolutionary lineages (Joger et al. 2003; Carlsson et al. 2004).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern (Regional assessment) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2009
Date Assessed: 2008-12-14
Assessor/s: Jelka Crnobrnja Isailovic, Milan Vogrin, Claudia Corti, Paulo Sá-Sousa, Marc Cheylan, Juan M. Pleguezuelos, Ljiljana Tomović, Bogoljub Sterijovski, Ulrich Joger, A. Westerström, Bartosz Borczyk, Benedikt Schmidt, Andreas Meyer, Roberto Sindaco, Dušan Jelić
Reviewer/s: Cox, N. and Temple, H.J. (Global Reptile Assessment)
Justification:
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a broad range of habitats, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough (30% or greater) to qualify for listing in a more threatened category at the global level.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This widespread species ranges southwards from Scandinavia (where the species is patchily distributed in the northern part of the range) and the Baltic region to France and the United Kingdom (not present in Ireland), and eastwards through Europe (excluding Iberia, peninsular Italy and most of Greece) to Russia (as far east as Sakhalin), Mongolia, the People's Democratic Republic of Korea and northwestern China. On the Balkan peninsula it is largely restricted to montane areas and has a very fragmented distribution. It has been recorded from sea-level up to 2,700m asl (the Alps and in Bulgaria).

[[ASIAN DISTRIBUTION NOT YET MAPPED]]
Countries:
Native:
Albania; Austria; Belarus; Belgium; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; China; Croatia; Czech Republic; Denmark; Estonia; Finland; France; Germany; Greece; Hungary; Italy; Korea, Democratic People's Republic of; Latvia; Lithuania; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Moldova; Mongolia; Montenegro; Netherlands; Norway; Poland; Romania; Russian Federation; Serbia (Serbia); Slovakia; Slovenia; Sweden; Switzerland; United Kingdom
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: It can be common in suitable habitat. In some mountainous parts of its range, such as Bulgaria and Greece, it is a rare species (Alexander Westerström pers. comm.). In Germany there have been population declines and some local extinctions. Lowland populations from Po plain in northern Italy are extinct in the past century.
Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: It is present in a wide variety of habitats including, open woodland and shrubland, hedgerows, field edges, heathland, moors, grasslands, alpine meadows, dunes and marshes. It generally requires humid habitats. The female produces between three and 18 young.
Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): In Europe, populations of this species have been significantly fragmented by the intensification of agricultural methods and development. Populations of this species are susceptible to persecution and collection for the pet trade (Ursenbacher, 1997). It is threatened in Romania by illegal collection of animals for venom extraction (CoE, 2003). In some parts of its range afforestation, and succession as a result of abandonment of traditional agricultural practices, are threats.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed on Annex III of the Bern Convention. It occurs in many protected areas throughout its range. It is protected by national legislation in parts of its range. There is a need to conserve separate evolutionary lineages of this species, as some may represent currently unrecognized species. This species is categorized as Endangered in Switzerland (Monney and Meyer, 2005).
Citation: Jelka Crnobrnja Isailovic, Milan Vogrin, Claudia Corti, Paulo Sá-Sousa, Marc Cheylan, Juan M. Pleguezuelos, Ljiljana Tomović, Bogoljub Sterijovski, Ulrich Joger, A. Westerström, Bartosz Borczyk, Benedikt Schmidt, Andreas Meyer, Roberto Sindaco, Dušan Jelić 2009. Vipera berus. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 23 April 2014.
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