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Arianta chamaeleon 

Scope: Global & Europe
Language: English
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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Mollusca Gastropoda Stylommatophora Helicidae

Scientific Name: Arianta chamaeleon (L. Pfeiffer, 1868)
Synonym(s):
Campylaea phalerata (Rossmässler 1836)
Taxonomic Notes: Arianta chamaeleon is a polytypic species. However, the taxonomic status of these subspecies is problematic. The currently accepted subspecies are: Arianta chamaeleon chamaeleon (L. Pfeiffer, 1868), A. chamaeleon carnica (Ehrmann, 1910), A. chamaeleon wiedemayri (Kobelt, 1903), A. chamaeleon subglobosa (Ehrmann, 1910) and A. chamaeleon tullina (Ehrmann, 1910).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered B2ab(iii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2011
Date Assessed: 2010-11-09
Assessor(s): von Proschwitz, T., Falkner, G. & Reischutz, P.
Reviewer(s): Ward, J. & Cuttelod, A.
Justification:
This species has a relatively restricted range, with an extent of occurrence of 5,500 km2 and an area of occupancy of 100-150 km2. It is considered to be severaly fragmented. There are ongoing serious threats to almost all subpopulations of this species, and the population trend for some of them is clearly declining. Single subpopulations may be Endangered to Critically Endangered. For this reason, the species is listed as Endangered (EN) B2ab(iii).

This species has also been assessed at the regional level as:
European regional assessment: Endangered (EN) B2ab(iii).
EU27 regional assessment: Endangered (EN) B2ab(iii) at the level of the 27 member states of the European Union.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:The species is found in the South-Eastern Alps through Austria, Italy and Slovenia. It is living in higher altitudes to the summit areas of large mountains. Thus, populations are highly fragmented, and currently, gene flow between these isolated populations is quite unlikely.

The distribution of the subspecies is as follows:
A. c. chamaeleon: Steiner Alps, Karawanken, Julian Alps
A. c. carnica: main chain of the Carnic Alps, Sappada-Group in the Venetian Alps, and Moggio-Group in the Julian Alps
A. c. wiedemayri: localised in the westernmost part of the Carnic main chain
A. c. subglobosa: Gailtaler Alps from Dobratsch to Jauken (type locality), in the north to the Staffberg, in the west passing over the Gailbergsattel to the Lienzer Dolomits
A. c. tullina: only known from the type locality Triglav in the Julian Alps (Slovenia, the indication for Italy in Fauna Europaea is an error)
Countries occurrence:
Native:
Austria; Italy (Italy (mainland)); Slovenia
Additional data:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:100-150
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:There are no population data available. However, in Austria all the subspecies show a decline of approximately 40% (Reischütz and Reischütz 2007). For Slovenia and Italy no data are available. However, this species lives in a heavily used landscape, and this use is the same in Italy and Slovenia (pasturing, tourist activity). For this reason it can be inferred that the decline affects these populations in a similar magnitude.
Current Population Trend:Unknown
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:Yes

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:The species may be found in open alpine habitats like alpine lowlands, and boulder agglomerations, rockwalls with cavities, herbaceous and shrubby screes, at higher altitudes (rarely below 1000 m). This species is strictly bound to calcareous habitats.
Systems:Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade:

This species is not used.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The main threat to the species is exploitation of habitats for tourism and pasturing. Tourist activities like skiing, hiking, climbing lead to a serious decline of habitat quality; this threat is ongoing or even increasing in the last 10 years. Another major threat to this species is pasture; large-bodied snail like A. chamaeleon can easily be killed by trampling and thus are seriously affected; pasturing also leads to an alteration of the natural vegetation with adverse effects, and the intensity of land-use is supposed to be stable or even increasing in the Alps.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions:

Four of the subspecies are included in the Red List of Austria (Reischütz and Reischütz 2007)

The type locality of A. c. tullina is situated in the Triglav National Park and thus strictly protected.
Thus, parts of the subpopulations are under local conservation schemes.

Citation: von Proschwitz, T., Falkner, G. & Reischutz, P. 2011. Arianta chamaeleon. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2011: e.T157131A5042771. . Downloaded on 22 September 2018.
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