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Xerocrassa caroli 

Scope: Global
Language: English
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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Mollusca Gastropoda Stylommatophora Hygromiidae

Scientific Name: Xerocrassa caroli
Species Authority: (Dohrn & Heynemann, 1862)
Taxonomic Notes: There are as many as five subspecies considered. X. caroli caroli (Dohrn & Heinemann 1862), X. caroli formenterensis F. Schröder 1984, X. caroli jaeckeli (Altimira 1965), X. caroli spartariensis F. Schröder 1984, and X. caroli alegriae F. Schröder 1984.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2011
Date Assessed: 2010-07-17
Assessor(s): Gómez Moliner, B.J.
Reviewer(s): Livingstone, S., Livingstone, S. & Neubert, E.
Justification:
This species is endemic to Spain in the Pitiusas Islands (Ibiza and Formentera). This species has a restricted range, but it does not meet either population decline or range decline criteria. Main threats are changes of land management which can alter the natural habitat, but these are acting at a local level. Predation by the black rat (Rattus rattus), an introduced and invasive species in some small islands where the species is found. This species is listed as Least Concern. 
More attention should be given to the subspecies living in the small islands surrounding Ibiza, which could be in a threat category if the invasive black rat is causing a population decline.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is endemic to Spain in the Pitiusas Islands (Ibiza and Formentera). It is present mainly in the south of Ibiza and in Formentera, as well as in the several small islands surrounding them, which has led to several sub-species. 
Countries occurrence:
Native:
Spain (Baleares)
Additional data:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:600
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:There are no population studies, but the population trend is assumed to be stable.
Current Population Trend:Stable
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species lives in arid environments, which according to Gasull (1964) appears in pine forets, sand dunes or in cliffs above the sea. Schröder (1978) says that it is adapted to different biotopes, even to those habitats where other species can not live, and it adapts to different environmental conditions by developing various forms of shell. Schröder (1984) has suggested that the current distribution of Xerocrassa caroli is determined by climatic factors, particularly temperature and rainfall. Thus, in the localities inhabited by the species annual precipitation is below 450 mm, and the average temperature in summer is 1 or 2 º C higher than in localities where it is absent.
Systems:Terrestrial

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This species is not used or traded.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Main threats are changes of land management which can alter the natural habitat, but these are acting at a local level. Predation by the black rat (Rattus rattus), an introduced and invasive species in some small islands where the species is found.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is protected by a resolution of the Balear Department of Environment which includes it in the Balear Endangered Species List  "(BOIB, no. 66, 15/05/2008) with the category of species of special concern. Action plans should be defined on the basis of this local resolution. The main conservation action should be focused to habitat preservation, and to better delimitate its area of occupancy. Studies about the population and bioloy are also needed. The taxonomic validity of the several subspecies described based on shell morphology should be confirmed. Moreover, the presence of black rats in the different islands and their threat should be studied to face to its eventual eradication.

Citation: Gómez Moliner, B.J. 2011. Xerocrassa caroli. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2011: e.T157121A5040465. . Downloaded on 26 June 2017.
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