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Candidula spadae

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA MOLLUSCA GASTROPODA STYLOMMATOPHORA HYGROMIIDAE

Scientific Name: Candidula spadae
Species Authority: (Calcara, 1845)
Taxonomic Notes: An anatomically well differentiated undescribed species, which has previously been confounded with C. spadae, has been recognized by A. Hallgass between Monte Catria and Gualdo Tadino in the border region of Marche and Umbria (Hallgass pers. comm. 2011).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable B1ab(iii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2013
Date Assessed: 2011-04-03
Assessor(s): von Proschwitz, T., Falkner, M., Falkner, G. & Hallgass , A.
Reviewer(s): Cuttelod, A. & Ward, J.
Justification:
The fragmented distribution area, especially in the Abruzzi mountains along with the tourist development and the presumed climatic changes threaten the species. The new species in the Monte Catria mountains is also threatened by sport activities (skiing, king quad and mountain bike). This species has a restricted extend of occurrence (EOO= 16,000 km2). Therefore, despite the lack of knowledge about the correct actual distribution, it is assessed as Vulnerable (VU), B1ab(iii).
The taxonomic uncertainties with regard to the new species and the disjunct occurrence on the Gargano promontory and the observed decline represent strong reasons for further intensive research.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is endemic to Central Italy. This species is endemic to the central Apennines, perhaps with a disjunct extension to Gargano (Forcart 1965). The distribution area is fragmented and reaches from the Monti Sibillini (type locality: Monte Vettore) southward to the Monti Reatini, the Gran Sasso, and the Monti della Meta (Mainarde) (Giusti 1973).
Records from the northern area, which had formerly been ascribed to C. spadae, belong to an undescribed distinct species (Hallgass pers. comm. 2011). The extent of occurrence (EOO) has been calculated as 16,000km2 in case the records for this species from Gargano prove to be reliable.
Countries:
Native:
Italy (Italy (mainland))
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The population size is unknown but the trend is decreasing. Hallgass observed a remarkable decline in the last two decades, caused by a general climatic desiccation in Central Italy (Hallgass pers. comm. 2011).
Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: The species lives on rocky grassland in the sub-alpine and alpine zones up to the summit region.
Systems: Terrestrial

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This species is not used.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The main threat to the species is exploitation of habitats for tourism and pasturing. Tourist activities like skiing, king quad and mountain bike, hiking, climbing lead to a serious decline of habitat quality. Another threat to this species is pasturing that might lead to alteration of the natural vegetation with adverse effects, and the intensity of land-use is supposed to be stable or even increasing in the Apennines. Hallgass observed a remarkable decline in the last two decades, caused by a general climatic desiccation in Central Italy (Hallgass pers. comm. 2011).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: A part of the known occurrences is situated in the Parco Nazionale del Gran Sasso e Monti della Laga, Parco Nazionale delle Abruzzi, and Parco Nazionale del Gargano. Research into the distribution of the species and the impacts of the identified threats should be done. The apparent decline should also be monitored.

The taxonomic uncertainties with regard to the new species and the disjunct occurrence on the Gargano promontory and the observed decline represent strong reasons for further intensive research.

Citation: von Proschwitz, T., Falkner, M., Falkner, G. & Hallgass , A. 2013. Candidula spadae. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 17 September 2014.
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