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Potamopyrgus antipodarum

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA MOLLUSCA GASTROPODA LITTORINIMORPHA HYDROBIIDAE

Scientific Name: Potamopyrgus antipodarum
Species Authority: (J.E. Gray, 1843)
Common Name(s):
English New Zealand Mudsnail
Synonym(s):
Hydrobia antipodum Martens, 1873
Hydrobia fischeri Dunker, 1862
Hydrobia jenkinsi Smith, 1889
Hydrobia reevei Fraunenfeld, 1865
Hydrobia spelaea Fraunenfeld, 1865
Hydrobia ventrosa Marshall, 1889 subspecies carinata Marshall, 1889
Paludestrina cumingiana Fischer, 1860
Paludestrina salleana Fischer, 1860
Potamopyrgus jenkinsi (Smith, 1889)
Potamopyrgus niger (Quoy & Gaimard, 1835)
Pseudamnicola lanceolata Cherbonnier, 1952
Taxonomic Notes: Potamopyrgus antipodarum is also known as P. jenkinsi (Smith 1889) in Europe. Australian populations were known as P. niger (Quoy and Gaimard 1835) due to the misinterpretation of Paludina nigra (Ponder 1988).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2013
Date Assessed: 2011-07-22
Assessor(s): Van Damme, D.
Reviewer(s): Bohm, M., Collen, B., Moore, S., Collier, K. & Brooks, E.
Contributor(s): Dyer, E., Soulsby, A.-M., Whitton, F., Kasthala, G., McGuinness, S., Milligan, HT, De Silva, R., Herdson, R., Thorley, J., McMillan, K., Collins, A., Duncan, C. & Offord, S.
Justification:
Potamopyrgus antipodarum has been assessed as Least Concern. This species is widespread and is known to occur at high population densities throughout both its native and introduced ranges. Although the threats to this species are not known, it is currently unlikely to be impacted by any major threat processes.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is native to New Zealand and its offshore islands (Kerans et al. 2005). The species was introduced to southern Australia, Tasmania and Europe during the 19th and 20th centuries. It is thought to have first arrived in Britain via drinking water barrels in ships from Australia, and spread to the European mainland (Ponder 1988). The species has spread to North America, where it was first recorded in the Snake River, Idaho in 1987. The population has since spread to the Great Lakes region, Owens River, Colarado River, and into the Greater Yellowstone ecosystem (Kerans et al. 2005). The species has been reported in Japan (Shimada and Urabe 2003 cited in Alonso and Castro-Díez 2008), and more recently in Canada (Davidson et al. 2008). Shells of the species have also been found in Turkey, Lebanon and Iraq (Naser and Son 2009).
Countries:
Native:
New Zealand (Antipodean Is., Chatham Is., Kermadec Is., North Is., South Is.)
Introduced:
Andorra; Australia (New South Wales, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria); Austria; Belgium; Bulgaria; Canada (British Columbia, Ontario); Czech Republic; Denmark; Estonia; Finland; France (Corsica, France (mainland)); Germany; Greece (Greece (mainland)); Hungary; Iraq; Ireland; Italy (Italy (mainland)); Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu, Kyushu, Shikoku); Latvia; Lebanon; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Netherlands; Norway; Poland; Portugal (Portugal (mainland)); Romania; Russian Federation (Kaliningrad); Slovakia; Spain (Spain (mainland)); Sweden; Switzerland; Turkey (Turkey-in-Asia, Turkey-in-Europe); Ukraine; United Kingdom (Great Britain, Northern Ireland); United States (California, Colorado, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Wisconsin, Wyoming)
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: No specific population data are available however this species is known to occur at high densities, particularly in areas where it has been introduced. Individuals of introduced populations are typically female and reproduce via parthenogenesis, allowing populations to rapidly increase in size (Kerans et al. 2005). Densities of up to 800,000 individuals per m2 have been recorded (Dorgelo 1987 cited in Kerans et al. 2005). Densities over 300,000 ind/m² have been recorded in the Madison River (USA). In the Great Lakes, the snail reaches densities as high as 5,600 ind/m². (Kerans et al. 2005). In some regions in Spain the species is described as a pest (Soler et al. 2006). A species as prolific as this has potential to be a biofouler at facilities drawing from infested waters (D.V.Damme pers. comm. 2011). Abundant populations of introduced Potamopyrgus antipodarum may also outcompete other grazers and inhibit colonization by other macroinvertebrates (Kerans et al. 2005). In Europe, P. antipodarum causes declines in species richness and abundance of native snails in constructed ponds (Strzelec 2005). At localized levels, populations can fluctuate depending on flow and recent flood events.

Population Trend: Stable

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Within its native range this species is found in freshwater and brackish streams and lakes. Outside of its native range this species is found in a wide variety of habitats including reservoirs, post-industrial ponds, geothermal streams, polder marsh, coastal lakes, estuaries and the sea (Alonso and Castro-Díez 2008). This species thrives in disturbed habitats, tolerating high nutrient levels and siltation (Čejka et al. 2008). It is found on a variety of substrates, including aquatic macrophytes, clay, fine sand and mud, and appears to be tolerant of both fast and slow flow environments. It is likely to be found in shallow waters of less than 50 m depth (Zaranko et al. 1997, Levri et al. 2007). Within its natural range this species reproduces via both asexual and sexual reproduction, however in areas where it has been introduced individuals are typically female and reproduce via parthenogenesis (Kerans et al. 2005). This species reaches sexual maturity at 3-3.5 mm of shell length, and an individual mature adult can produce an average of 230 offspring per year (Møller et al. 1994 and Richards 2002 cited in Alonso and Castro-Díez 2008). This species is euryhaline, establishing populations in fresh and brackish water (D.V. Damme pers. comm. 2011). The optimal salinity is probably near or below 5 ppt, but P. antipodarum is capable of feeding, growing, and reproducing at salinities of 0–15 ppt and can tolerate 30–35 ppt for short periods of time (Gerard et al. 2003).
Systems: Freshwater; Marine

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This species is not utilized.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): This species is widespread and highly invasive so is unlikely to be impacted by any major threats.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: No species-specific conservation measures are in place or needed for this species.

Citation: Van Damme, D. 2013. Potamopyrgus antipodarum. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 24 October 2014.
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