Insignia macrostoma


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family

Scientific Name: Insignia macrostoma
Species Authority: Angelov, 1972

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable D2 ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2009-11-19
Assessor(s): Georgiev, D.
Reviewer(s): Georgiev, D., Tomovic, J., Erõss, Z., Feher, Z., Seddon, M.B., Abdul Malak, D. & Vavrova, L.
This species could be assessed as either Critically Endangered B2ab(iii) or Vulnerable D2, depending on the view of the severity of the threats caused in the future from pollution by different recreational activities as well as the off-take of water for domestic purposes. This species was currently assessed as Vulnerable D2, as at present the habitat degradation is not severe, and it may be that although the species  presence is confirmed only on the type locality, it could be in other closely adjacent springs.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is endemic to Bulgaria, where it is found in spring near a sink-hole, close to Polaten village in the western Stara Planina Mountains (Georgiev in litt. 2009).  The total area of the distribution is uncertain, and hence has been estimated as less than 100 km2.
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: There is no information on population trends for this species.
Population Trend: Unknown

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Insignia macrostoma is a freshwater species living in a cold spring in a cave. The habitat quality may be in doubt due to exploitation of the cave.
Systems: Freshwater

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This species is not utilised.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): In the future, the pollution caused by the visitors may affect the cave ecosystem to a limited extent (depending on the accessibility to public).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: There are no conservation measures taken for this species. It is recommended that a programme of habitat monitoring be implemented to determine whether potential use of the cave for tourist activities will change the water quality.

Citation: Georgiev, D. 2010. Insignia macrostoma. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <>. Downloaded on 03 September 2015.
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