|Scientific Name:||Mugil incilis Hancock, 1830|
Mugil guentheri Steindachner, 1866
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||McEachran, J. & Williams, J.T.|
|Reviewer(s):||Collen, B., Richman, N., Beresford, A., Chenery, A. & Ram, M.|
|Contributor(s):||De Silva, R., Milligan, H., Lutz, M., Batchelor, A., Jopling, B., Kemp, K., Lewis, S., Lintott, P., Sears, J., Wilson, P., Smith, J. & Livingston, F.|
Mugil incilis has been assessed as Least Concern. Mugil incilis has a broad distribution, but is exploited throughout its range, with intense exploitation occurring in some areas. While this exploitation is causing a reduction in average size of mature adults, there is no evidence of a decline in population size at present. Monitoring of harvest levels should be carried out to ensure that any cases of over-fishing are noted.
|Range Description:||Mugil incilis is found in the western Atlantic Ocean from Panama and Haiti to southeastern Brazil.|
Native:Aruba; Brazil; Colombia; Cuba; French Guiana; Grenada; Guyana; Suriname; Trinidad and Tobago; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:|
Atlantic – southwest; Atlantic – western central
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Between 1994 and 2004, a survey in Colombia showed a reduction in adult Mugil incilis of mature size from 30% of the population to 17% (Barandica et al. 2008).|
|Current Population Trend:||Stable|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Mugil incilis is primarily found in brackish estuaries, coastal waters, and surf zones, but can also be found in marine and hyper-saline waters. Spawning occurs at the mouths of rivers. Juveniles migrate large distances to swamps and river mouths to seek food and to protect themselves against predators (Harrison 2002).|
|Generation Length (years):||4|
|Use and Trade:||Mugil incilis is exploited in the Cienaga Grande de Santa Marta lagoon and is harvested at a low level throughout its range, although may suffer from over-fishing in localized regions (FAO 2007).|
Mugil incilis is one of the three main species exploited in the Cienaga Grande de Santa Marta lagoon, which is one of the most important artisanal fisheries in Colombia (Rueda and Defeo 2003). This species is harvested at a low level throughout its range, although may suffer from over-fishing in localized regions (FAO 2007).
In Colombia, this species may also be impacted by re-suspension of substratum caused by using a boliche (an encircling gill net) which can detrimentally affect fish by obstructing their gills and reducing their oxygen intake (Rueda and Defeo 2003, A. Acero pers comm. 2009). However, this is not known from other areas of its range where fishing pressures are less intense (A. Acero pers comm. 2009).
There are no known species-specific conservation measures in place for Mugil incilis. However, in places, its distribution may coincide with a number of marine protected areas.
Monitoring of harvest levels needs to be continued for this species, particularly in Colombia.
|Errata reason:||This errata assessment has been created because the map was accidentally left out of the version published previously.|
|Citation:||McEachran, J. & Williams, J.T. 2010. Mugil incilis (errata version published in 2017). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T155291A115296403.Downloaded on 25 September 2018.|
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