Map_thumbnail_large_font

Paralichthys dentatus

Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_onStatus_nt_offStatus_vu_offStatus_en_offStatus_cr_offStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA ACTINOPTERYGII PLEURONECTIFORMES PARALICHTHYIDAE

Scientific Name: Paralichthys dentatus
Species Authority: (Linnaeus, 1766)
Common Name(s):
English Summer Flounder, Flounder, Gulf Flounder, Fluke
French Cardeau d'été
Spanish Falso Halibut del Canadá
Synonym(s):
Pleuronectes dentatus Linnaeus, 1766

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2009-02-04
Assessor(s): Munroe, T.A.
Reviewer(s): Collen, B., Richman, N., Beresford, A., Chenery, A. & Ram, M.
Contributor(s): De Silva, R., Milligan, H., Lutz, M., Batchelor, A., Jopling, B., Kemp, K., Lewis, S., Lintott, P., Sears, J., Wilson, P. & Smith, J. and Livingston, F.
Justification:
Paralichthys dentatus has been assessed as Least Concern. While this species is commerically exploited, it is still known to be abundant in areas of its range, and biomass indices indicate that population numbers are not in decline.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Paralichthys dentatus is found from the southern Gulf of Maine to South Carolina and occasionally around Florida (Bigelow and Schroeder 2002).
Countries:
Native:
Canada; United States (Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Virginia)
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Native:
Atlantic – northwest; Atlantic – western central
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Paralichthys dentatus is common in the southern Gulf of Maine, east to Nantucket Shoals, and to the western part of the South Channels (Bigelow and Schroeder 2002). This species is rare north of Cape Cod, but is occasionally found as far north as Brown's Bank (Bigelow and Schroeder 2002).  It is abundant from Massachusetts to North Carolina.
Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: The flounder, Paralichthys dentatus, is a bottom dwelling species and generally prefers muddy or sandy substrates. This species is concentrated in bays and estuaries from late spring to the early autumn, however the larger specimens remain further offshore at depths of 70-155 m or deeper. This species has also been found in salt marshes and seagrass beds with muddy or silty substrates. This species is also occasionally found in freshwater rivers (Bigelow and Schroeder 2002).
Systems: Marine

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: Paralichthys dentatus is fished commercially and recreationally. Since 1996, it has also been used in the aquaculture industry.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Paralichthys dentatus is both commercially and recreationally valuable. The combined landings from commercial and recreational fishing peaked in 1983 at 26,100 t but in 1999-2004, landings have ranged between 8,600 t and 12,500 t (Terceiro 2006). Biomass indices declined through the late 1970s and into the early 1990s, but since then have increased to the level they were during the mid 1970s (Terceiro 2006). It has been reported that although this species' population is not in an over-fished condition, intense exploitation continues to occur (Terceiro 2006). Paralichthys dentatus is also an important by-catch species in the small-mesh fishery for squid in Nantucket and Vineyard Sounds (Bigelow and Schroeder 2002). Commercial aquaculture of this species began in 1966.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: The Summer Flounder, Scup and Black Sea Bass Fishery Management Plan (FMP), administered by the Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission (ASMFC) and the Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council (MAFMC), manages the commerical and recreational fisheries of Paralichthys dentatus. Management of this species' stock is done by means of setting annual commercial quotas, recreational harvest limits, a commercial vessel permit moratorium, minimum fish size and gear restrictions, and a recreational fishery limit (Terceiro 2006). There are 91 marine protected area designations along the central Atlantic coast of the United States, in which this species may be found. Further research and monitoring of the harvest levels and population size of this species is needed.

Citation: Munroe, T.A. 2010. Paralichthys dentatus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 19 December 2014.
Disclaimer: To make use of this information, please check the <Terms of Use>.
Feedback: If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please provide us with feedback so that we can correct or extend the information provided