|Scientific Name:||Etrumeus whiteheadi|
|Species Authority:||Wongratana, 1983|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Heemstra, P.C., Munroe, T.A. & Priede, I.G.|
|Reviewer(s):||Collen, B., Richman, N., Beresford, A., Chenery, A. & Ram, M.|
|Contributor(s):||De Silva, R., Milligan, H., Lutz, M., Batchelor, A., Jopling, B., Kemp, K., Lewis, S., Lintott, P., Sears, J., Wilson, P., Smith, J. & Livingston, F.|
Etrumeus whiteheadi has been assessed as Least Concern. While this species is harvested throughout much of its range, reported landings appear to be stable with no evident decline. The short longevity of these species renders it less vulnerable to moderate exploitation. Continued monitoring of the harvest levels of this species is required to highlight any potential future declines in abundance.
|Range Description:||Etrumeus whiteheadi occurs in the southeast Atlantic from Walvis Bay in Namibia to Durban in South Africa.|
Native:Namibia; South Africa
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Atlantic – southeast
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||This species undergoes natural fluctuations in population numbers (P. C. Heemstra pers. comm. 2009).|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Etrumeus whiteheadi is typically found to occur inshore. Juveniles shoal in near-shore upwelling zones, while adults occur in the deeper waters by the continental shelf edge (Agenbag 2003). This epipelagic species ranges in depth from just below the surface to 200 m. This species is likely to have a short longevity and generation length.|
|Use and Trade:||Etrumeus whiteheadi is commercially harvested by both South Africa and Namibian fisheries.|
Etrumeus whiteheadi is commercially harvested by both South Africa and Namibian fisheries. There have been fluctuations in the landings of this species over the last 20 years, however there does not appear to be any evidence of a decline in the reported FAO landings (J. G. Nielsen pers. comm. 2009), assuming fishing effort has been relatively constant. Landings vary between 30,000 to 55,000 tonnes annually (FishStat 2009). The short longevity of these species renders them less vulnerable to moderate exploitation.
The landing data for this species may be confused with Etrumeus teres in southern Africa (Whitehead 1985).
|Conservation Actions:||There are directives in place to manage the pilchard stocks, in which Etrumeus whiteheadi is included, in South Africa. These include a minimum mesh size of 28 mm, a closed winter season and monitoring at factory landing sites (FAO 2001).|
|Citation:||Heemstra, P.C., Munroe, T.A. & Priede, I.G. 2010. Etrumeus whiteheadi. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 31 August 2015.|
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