Solea triophthalma 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Actinopterygii Pleuronectiformes Soleidae

Scientific Name: Solea triophthalma Bleeker, 1863
Common Name(s):
English Cyclope Sole
French Sole Perdrix, Sole-pole à Trois Taches
Spanish Sortija Tres Ojos
Pegusa triophthalma
Pegusa triophthalmus (Bleeker, 1863)
Solea triophthalma Bleeker, 1863
Solea triophthalmus Bleeker, 1863

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Data Deficient ver 3.1
Year Published: 2015
Date Assessed: 2014-07-15
Assessor(s): de Morais, L., Sylla, M., Sagna, A., Mbye, E., Cissoko, K., Camara, K., Adeofe, T.A., Camara, Y.H., Djiman, R., Monroe, T., Sidibé, A & Tous, P.
Reviewer(s): Strongin, K., Polidoro, B., Carpenter, K.E. & Corley, B.
Contributor(s): De Silva, R., Milligan, H., Lutz, M., Batchelor, A., Jopling, B., Kemp, K., Lewis, S., Lintott, P., Sears, J., Wilson, P., Smith, J. & Livingston, F.
This species is harvested by bottom trawl fisheries and using beach seines. However, there is no available information on harvest levels and abundance. Monitoring of the harvest levels of this species is needed to determine if this species is undergoing significant declines in abundance before a more accurate assessment of conservation status can be made. Solea triophthalma has been assessed as Data Deficient.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Solea triophthalma occurs from Mauritania to the Gulf of Guinea. It is not found in the south of Cape Lopez, Gabon.
Countries occurrence:
Angola; Benin; Cape Verde; Congo; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Côte d'Ivoire; Equatorial Guinea; Gabon; Gambia; Ghana; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Liberia; Mauritania; Nigeria; Sao Tomé and Principe; Senegal; Sierra Leone
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Atlantic – eastern central; Atlantic – southeast
Additional data:
Lower depth limit (metres):30
Upper depth limit (metres):10
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:There is no population information available for S. triophthalma.
Current Population Trend:Unknown
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:Unknown

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Solea triophthalma is a demersal species that can be found over sand bottoms (Desoutter 1990) at a depth range of 10-30 m. It is also known to enter lagoons. Its diet consists of molluscs and other species of invertebrates. This species has a pelagic larval stage (J.G. Nielsen pers. comm. 2009). In Mauritania, this species have been captured in scientific surveys from six to 14 m (Camara pers. comm. 2012).

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This species is harvested as a food fish.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Solea triophthalma is a commercially landed fish and is caught using bottom trawls and beach seines (FAO 1990), however there is no information concerning landings. This species is also likely to be taken as by-catch in other bottom trawl fisheries operating within its range. The Gulf of Guinea is reported to be overfished and several demersal and pelagic fish species are over-exploited. The Gulf of Guinea also shows signs of ecosystem stress (NOAA 2003). Without landings and abundance data for this species it is difficult to determine what impact these threats are having on the population numbers.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: There are no known species-specific conservation measures in place for S. triophthalma. Monitoring of the harvest levels is needed to determine if this species is undergoing a significant decline in abundance.

Citation: de Morais, L., Sylla, M., Sagna, A., Mbye, E., Cissoko, K., Camara, K., Adeofe, T.A., Camara, Y.H., Djiman, R., Monroe, T., Sidibé, A & Tous, P. 2015. Solea triophthalma. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T154893A15533291. . Downloaded on 21 June 2018.
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