|Scientific Name:||Notropis semperasper|
|Species Authority:||Gilbert, 1961|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii) ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Smith, K. & Darwall, W.R.T.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Hammerson, G.A. & Ormes, M.|
This species is listed as Vulnerable because its extent of occurrence is less than 5,000 sq km, area of occupancy is less than 500 sq km, number of locations is more than five but may not exceed 10, and habitat quality (and possibly distribution and abundance) may be declining.
|Range Description:||Range includes the Ridge and Valley Province of the upper James River drainage, Virginia; this species has the smallest range of the three fishes endemic to the James drainage (Burkhead and Jenkins 1991, Jenkins and Burkhead 1994).|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
Jenkins and Burkhead (1994) mapped about 38 collection sites, which may represent several distinct occurrences (subpopulations) and perhaps not more than 10 locations (as defined by IUCN).
Total adult population size is unknown; this species is rare to common (generally uncommon) in different parts of its range (Jenkins and Burkhead 1994).
This species may have been extirpated from some parts of its historical range as a result of increased siltation near the lower boundary of the Valley and Ridge (Jenkins and Burkhead 1994).
Trend over the past 10 years or three generations is uncertain, but distribution and abundance probably are slowly declining. Warren et al. (2000) categorized this species as "vulnerable" (not endangered or threatened, nor currently stable). Jelks et al. (2008) also rated this species as vulnerable.
|Habitat and Ecology:||Habitat includes clear rocky pools and backwaters of small to large rivers (Page and Burr 2011). This species is limited to relatively pristine streams; typically it occurs in cool and warm, usually clear, large creeks and medium-sized rivers with moderate gradient, hard bottom, and little siltation; it prefers slow to moderate currents of runs, pools near flowing water, and backwaters, but it occasionally can be found in swifter water (Jenkins and Burkhead 1994). It may spawn over Nocomis nests.|
|Use and Trade:||This species is not utilized.|
|Major Threat(s):||Impoundment, including cold tailwater, and pulp mill effluents present slight or moderate threats to the habitat. These have already altered the quality of the habitat in the Jackson River and upper James River. The Roughhead Shiner may be threatened by competition from the apparently recently introduced, rapidly spreading Telescope Shiner, Notropis telescopus (Burkhead and Jenkins 1991, Jenkins and Burkhead 1994).|
The populations of, and interaction between, Notropis semperasper and N. telescopus need to monitored (Burkhead and Jenkins 1991).
The regulation of discharge of chemical effluents in the upper James River needs to be tightened.
|Citation:||NatureServe 2013. Notropis semperasper. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 30 March 2015.|
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