|Scientific Name:||Monopterus indicus|
|Species Authority:||(Silas & Dawson, 1961)|
Amphipnous indicus Silas & Dawson, 1961
|Taxonomic Notes:||Monopterus indicus was originally described as Amphipnous indicus by Silas and Dawson (1961) from Robbers Cave in Satara District, and Kenheri caves in Mumbai, Maharashtra State, India.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable B2ab(iii) ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Raghavan, R., Ali, A. & Molur, S.|
|Contributor(s):||Molur, S., Rema Devi, K.R. & Bogutskaya, N.|
Monopterus indicus is assessed as Vulnerable since the expected area of occupancy (AOO) for this species is around 1,500 km², with 5-10 locations. Its habitat is severely affected by urbanization, deforestation and recreational activities in mountain areas.
|Range Description:||This species is endemic to the northern Western Ghats of India (Dahanukar et al. 2004). It is known from Robbers' cave and Dhobi Falls in Mahableshwar and Kanheri falls near Kanheri Caves, Mumbai (Silas and Dawson 1961) and Tamhini and Tailbail areas in Pune (Neelesh Dahanukar, Mandar Paingankar and Rupesh Raut pers. obs.), Maharashtra State.
The species is known from five localities but it is suspected to be present in more localities as well. The expected extent of occurrence (EOO) of the species is 30,000 km² and the area of occupancy (AOO) is 1,500 km² (about 5% of the EOO based on habitat requirement of the species).
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The species is very rare (Menon 1999, Neelesh Dahanukar pers. obs.). However, there is no information on the trends in the population changes.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
Monopterus indicus inhabits swamps and marshy areas with soft mud associated with hill streams and it is adapted to burrowing habits. During the early monsoon it migrates upstream and breeds in the hill stream. During the monsoon season the young and adults are often found under the rocks in rapidly flowing hill streams. The fish feeds on earthworms (Neelesh Dahanukar, Mandar Paingankar and Rupesh Raut pers. obs.).
Since marshes, swamps and associated hill streams are essential habitats for this fish, habitat alterations caused by urbanization and recreational activities in the mountain tops could affect the species severely. Such changes are common in the northern Western Ghats where the species is distributed.
|Use and Trade:||There is no information on the use and trade of this species.|
|Major Threat(s):||Marshes and swamps and associated hill streams are essential habitats for the fish, habitat alterations caused by urbanization, deforestation and recreational activities in the mountain tops could affect the species severely. Such changes are common in the northern Western Ghats where the species is distributed.|
|Conservation Actions:||There is no specific conservation action plan directed towards this species. The species is known from Sanjay Gandhi National Park. Research is required to understand the precise distribution, population trends, life history and specific threats to the species.|
|Citation:||Dahanukar, N. 2013. Monopterus indicus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 30 July 2015.|
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