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Lepilemur grewcockorum

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA MAMMALIA PRIMATES LEPILEMURIDAE

Scientific Name: Lepilemur grewcockorum
Species Authority: Louis Jr., Engberg, Lei, Geng, Sommer, Randriamampionona, Randriamanana, Zaonarivelo, Andriantompohavana, Randria, Prosper, Ramaromilanto, Rakotoarisoa, Rooney, & Brenneman, 2006
Common Name(s):
English Grewcock's Sportive Lemur
Synonym(s):
Lepilemur grewcocki Louis Jr., Engberg, Lei, Geng, Sommer, Randriamampionona, Randriamanana, Zaonarivelo et al., 2006
Lepilemur manasamody Craul, Zimmermann, Rasoloharijaona, Randrianambinina & Radespiel, 2007
Taxonomic Notes: Tattersall (2007) has cautioned that the Lepilemur species reported by Louis et al. (2006), all diagnosed exclusively on genetic distance and all allopatric, be treated with extreme caution until supporting data are forthcoming.

Zinner et al. (2007) examined conflicting results in the genetic analysis of sportive lemurs in northwestern Madagascar, those within in the range of what once considered to be Lepilemur dorsalis. Since the type localities of L. dorsalis Gray, 1871 and L. grandidieri Forsyth Major, 1894, were both "Northwest Madagascar", the proper name of one or two of the new species from the region (sahamalazensis, grewcockorum, mittermeieri, tymlerachsonorum) could be either of these two. The true "dorsalis", as such, had not been identified, and no attempt has been made to identify grandidieri, formerly a junior synonym of dorsalis. Genetic analysis of the holotypes of dorsalis and grandidieri is needed to resolve this. Zinner et al. (2007) also indicated that L. manasamody, described by Craul et al. (2007), is probably a junior synonym of L. grewcockorum, as sampling sites were less than two km apart, with no evident geographic barrier.

The original latin species name is here emended from the original description following Hoffmann et al. (2009).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered B1ab(i,iii,iv,v) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2014
Date Assessed: 2012-07-11
Assessor(s): Andriaholinirina, N., Baden, A., Blanco, M., Chikhi, L., Cooke, A., Davies, N., Dolch, R., Donati, G., Ganzhorn, J., Golden, C., Groeneveld, L.F., Hapke, A., Irwin, M., Johnson, S., Kappeler, P., King, T., Lewis, R., Louis, E.E., Markolf, M., Mass, V., Mittermeier, R.A., Nichols, R., Patel, E., Rabarivola, C.J., Raharivololona, B., Rajaobelina, S., Rakotoarisoa, G., Rakotomanga, B., Rakotonanahary, J., Rakotondrainibe, H., Rakotondratsimba, G., Rakotondratsimba, M., Rakotonirina, L., Ralainasolo, F.B., Ralison, J., Ramahaleo, T., Ranaivoarisoa, J.F., Randrianahaleo, S.I., Randrianambinina, B., Randrianarimanana, L., Randrianasolo, H., Randriatahina, G., Rasamimananana, H., Rasolofoharivelo, T., Rasoloharijaona, S., Ratelolahy, F., Ratsimbazafy, J., Ratsimbazafy, N., Razafindraibe, H., Razafindramanana, J., Rowe, N., Salmona, J., Seiler, M., Volampeno, S., Wright, P., Youssouf, J., Zaonarivelo, J. & Zaramody, A.
Reviewer(s): Schwitzer, C. & Molur, S.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Chiozza, F. & Clark, F.
Justification:
The extent of occurrence (EOO) of this species covers less than 2,180 km2. This geographic range is severely fragmented and undergoing continuing decline in area, extent and quality of habitat. The number of mature individuals is also known to be in decline. Based on these premises, the species is listed as Endangered.
History:
2008 Data Deficient

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Currently known from the Anjiamangirana region in northwestern Madagascar. Louis et al. (2006) gave the range as south of the Mahajamba River and north of the Maevarano and Sofia River, which is presumably a lapsis for "north of the Mahajamba River and south of the Maevarano and Sofia River". Formerly, the sportive lemurs found in this part of Madagascar were thought to be L. edwardsi. More recently, Craul et al. (2007) have described L. otto from between the Mahajamba and the Sofia, making the Sofia River effectively the southerly limit of L. grewcockorum; Craul et al. (2007) also described the species L. manasamody from between the Sofia and Maeverano Rivers, but following Zinner et al. (2007) that species is here considered a synonym of L. grewcockorum. Clearly, the limits between L. edwardsi, L. otto, and L. sahamalazensis remain unclear. The extent of occurrence (EOO) is estimated to be less than 2,180 km2.
Countries:
Native:
Madagascar
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Encounter rates in forest fragments near Anjajavy and between Antsohihy and Analalava are low. In 2010, Lepilemur grewcockorum was found to be present in only 3 of 11 sites (Anjajavy, Ambarijeby, and Bekofafa) in the Région Sofia. If present, its abundance ranged from 0.8 to 1 individual per km (Radespiel et al. 2010). Population trend is declining due to habitat loss and degradation as well as hunting. Forest loss in Région Sofia from 1990 to 2000 was 10% or 75,000 ha; from 2000 to 2010: 3% or 20,000 ha. Thus, forest lost during three generations of L. grewcockorum was 13% or 95,000 ha. Forest loss is increasing again since 2009 due to political crisis and lack of law enforcement. Hunting is not quantifiable, but likely to be unsustainable due to high human population pressure (population growth of 2.7% annually). Future decline is likely to accelerate due to higher human population pressure and political instability. If the decline rate were to grow back to 1990-2000 levels, it would equal 20% loss during three generations through forest loss alone, not including hunting.
The total population is divided into several isolated subpopulations without any genetic exchange. Subpopulations are likely to be small due to a high degree of habitat fragmentation (Mittermeier et al. 2008 and references therein).
Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This species inhabits dense primary forest fragments in mountainous and coastal areas of the southern Sambirano.
Systems: Terrestrial

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: The species is hunted at increasingly high rates by the local human population since the onset of the political crisis in Madagascar in 2009, due to an almost complete lack of law enforcement. The level of hunting is likely to be unsustainable.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s):

This species is threatened by habitat loss and degradation due to urbanization, agricultural practices, livestock farming, as well as unsustainable levels of hunting. 

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Listed on CITES Appendix I. This species is known to occur in the Anjiamangirana Classified Forest as well as in a proposed 50,300 ha conservation area on the Bongolava Massif; however, there is no effective protection due to lack of enforcement.

Citation: Andriaholinirina, N., Baden, A., Blanco, M., Chikhi, L., Cooke, A., Davies, N., Dolch, R., Donati, G., Ganzhorn, J., Golden, C., Groeneveld, L.F., Hapke, A., Irwin, M., Johnson, S., Kappeler, P., King, T., Lewis, R., Louis, E.E., Markolf, M., Mass, V., Mittermeier, R.A., Nichols, R., Patel, E., Rabarivola, C.J., Raharivololona, B., Rajaobelina, S., Rakotoarisoa, G., Rakotomanga, B., Rakotonanahary, J., Rakotondrainibe, H., Rakotondratsimba, G., Rakotondratsimba, M., Rakotonirina, L., Ralainasolo, F.B., Ralison, J., Ramahaleo, T., Ranaivoarisoa, J.F., Randrianahaleo, S.I., Randrianambinina, B., Randrianarimanana, L., Randrianasolo, H., Randriatahina, G., Rasamimananana, H., Rasolofoharivelo, T., Rasoloharijaona, S., Ratelolahy, F., Ratsimbazafy, J., Ratsimbazafy, N., Razafindraibe, H., Razafindramanana, J., Rowe, N., Salmona, J., Seiler, M., Volampeno, S., Wright, P., Youssouf, J., Zaonarivelo, J. & Zaramody, A. 2014. Lepilemur grewcockorum. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 02 October 2014.
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