Map_thumbnail_large_font

Cebus nigritus

Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_offStatus_nt_onStatus_vu_offStatus_en_offStatus_cr_offStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA MAMMALIA PRIMATES CEBIDAE

Scientific Name: Cebus nigritus
Species Authority: (Goldfuss, 1809)
Common Name(s):
English Black-horned Capuchin, Macaco-prego
Taxonomic Notes: Silva Jr (2001, 2002) argued that the tufted capuchins and the untufted capuchins (sensu Hershkovitz 1949, 1955) are so distinct in their morphology that they should be considered separate genera. Cebus Erxleben, 1777 for the untufted group, and Sapajus Kerr, 1792 is the name available for the tufted capuchins.

Taxonomy of the tufted capuchins (sensu Hershkovitz 1949, 1955) follows Silva Jr (2001), who did not recognize any subspecific forms. Groves (2001, 2005) presented an alternative taxonomy for the tufted capuchins as follows: C. apella apella (Linnaeus, 1758); C. apella fatuellus (Linnaeus, 1766); C. apella macrocephalus Spix, 1823; C. apella peruanus Thomas, 1901; C. apella tocantinus Lönnberg, 1939; C. apella ?margaritae Hollister, 1914; C. libidinosus libidinosus Spix, 1823; C. libidinosus pallidus Gray, 1866; C. libidinosus paraguayanus Fischer, 1829; C. libidinosus juruanus Lönnberg, 1939; C. nigritus nigritus (Goldfuss, 1809); C. nigritus robustus Kuhl, 1820; C. nigritus cucullatus Spix, 1823; C. xanthosternos Wied-Neuwied, 1826 (see Fragaszy et al. 2004; Rylands et al. 2005).

Groves (2001) listed three subspecific forms for C. nigritus: C. nigritus nigritus (Goldfuss, 1809); C. nigritus robustus Kuhl, 1820, considered a distinct species by Silva Jr. (2001); and C. nigritus cucullatus Spix, 1823, considered a junior synonym of C. nigritus by Silva Jr. (2001).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): Kierulff, M.C.M., Mendes, S.L. & Rylands, A.B.
Reviewer(s): Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)
Justification:
This species is listed as Near Threatened due to an ongoing decline, but at a rate of less than 30% over the past 3 generation (48 years). Although the species is wide ranging and occurs in a number of protected areas - the remaining populations are fragmented and continuing to decline. The species needs large areas and does not persist in small fragments. Almost qualifies as threatened under criterion A2c.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Cebus nigritus occurs south of the Rio Doce, in the states of Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo, Brazil, and extending south along the coast through Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul. It extends into the northernmost tip of the Argentinean province of Misiones (east of the Rio Paraná).
Countries:
Native:
Argentina (Misiones); Brazil (Espírito Santo, Minas Gerais, Paraná, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, São Paulo)
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Bitteti (2001) recorded a populastion density of 16 individuals/km² in the Iguazu National Park, Argentina.
Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Lowland, submontane and montane tropical and subtropical forest of the Atlantic coast of Brazil; also in gallery forest and secondary forests.

Capuchins are frugivores-insectivores, including a wide variety of fruits, seeds and arthropods, frogs, nestlings and even small mammals, supplemented by stems, flowers and leaves. They are extractive, manipulative foragers (see Izawa 1979; Fernandes 1991). Bittetti (2001) recorded an average home range for 3 groups in the Iguazu National Park, Argentina: 161±77 ha (range 81-293 ha). Mean group size (not including infants) varied over two years from 12.4±7.0 to 16.8±9.5 individuals. Group sizes range from 6 or 7 to 20, with numbers of females exceeding the numbers of males. Males disperse. Both sexes take up linear hierarchies, the top ranking male being dominant to the top-ranking female. Subordinate males are often peripheral (Freese and Oppenmheimer 1981; Fragaszy et al. 2004).
Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Although quite wide ranging, the species is nonetheless subject to habitat loss and degradation and to hunting across its range. The species is considered a crop pest in some areas (in sugar cane and pine plantations). Otherwise, generally scarce except in the larger protected areas.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species occurs in the following protected areas:

Argentina
Iguazu National Park (Bitteti 2001)

Brazil
Iguaçu National Park (170,036 ha)
Morro do Diabo State Park (34,441 ha) (Coimbra-Filho 1976b)
Serra do Brigadeiro State Park (13,120 ha)
Rio Doce State Park (35,973 ha)
Caparaó National Park (31,853 ha) (part Espírito Santo)
Caratinga Biological Station / RPPN Feliciano Miguel Abdala (900 ha)

It is listed on CITES Appendix II.

Citation: Kierulff, M.C.M., Mendes, S.L. & Rylands, A.B. 2008. Cebus nigritus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 16 September 2014.
Disclaimer: To make use of this information, please check the <Terms of Use>.
Feedback: If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please fill in the feedback form so that we can correct or extend the information provided