Sapajus nigritus 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Primates Cebidae

Scientific Name: Sapajus nigritus Goldfuss, 1809
Common Name(s):
English Black-horned Capuchin, Black Capuchin, Macaco-prego
Cebus nigritus (Goldfuss, 1809)
Taxonomic Source(s): Lynch Alfaro, J.W., Silva, J.S. and Rylands, A.B. 2012. How different are robust and gracile Capuchin Monkeys? An argument for the use of Sapajus and Cebus. American Journal of Primatology 74(4): 273–286.
Taxonomic Notes: Silva Jr (2001, 2002) argued that the tufted capuchins and the untufted capuchins (sensu Hershkovitz 1949, 1955) are so distinct in their morphology that they should be considered separate genera. Cebus Erxleben, 1777 for the untufted group, and Sapajus Kerr, 1792 is the name available for the tufted capuchins.

Taxonomy of the tufted capuchins (sensu Hershkovitz 1949, 1955) follows Silva Jr (2001), who did not recognize any subspecific forms. Groves (2001, 2005) presented an alternative taxonomy for the tufted capuchins as follows: C. apella apella (Linnaeus, 1758); C. apella fatuellus (Linnaeus, 1766); C. apella macrocephalus Spix, 1823; C. apella peruanus Thomas, 1901; C. apella tocantinus Lönnberg, 1939; C. apella ?margaritae Hollister, 1914; C. libidinosus libidinosus Spix, 1823; C. libidinosus pallidus Gray, 1866; C. libidinosus paraguayanus Fischer, 1829; C. libidinosus juruanus Lönnberg, 1939; C. nigritus nigritus (Goldfuss, 1809); C. nigritus robustus Kuhl, 1820; C. nigritus cucullatus Spix, 1823; C. xanthosternos Wied-Neuwied, 1826 (see Fragaszy et al. 2004; Rylands et al. 2005).

Groves (2001) listed three subspecific forms for C. nigritus: C. nigritus nigritus (Goldfuss, 1809); C. nigritus robustus Kuhl, 1820, considered a distinct species by Silva Jr. (2001); and C. nigritus cucullatus Spix, 1823, considered a junior synonym of C. nigritus by Silva Jr. (2001).

The species was transferred to Sapajus (Lynch Alfaro et al. 2012).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2015
Date Assessed: 2008-07-01
Assessor(s): Kierulff, M.C.M., Mendes, S.L. & Rylands, A.B.
Reviewer(s): Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B.
This species is listed as Near Threatened due to an ongoing decline, but at a rate of less than 30% over the past 3 generation (48 years). Although the species is wide ranging and occurs in a number of protected areas - the remaining populations are fragmented and continuing to decline. The species needs large areas and does not persist in small fragments. Almost qualifies as threatened under criterion A2c.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Sapajus nigritus occurs south of the Rio Doce, in the states of Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo, Brazil, and extending south along the coast through Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul. It extends into the northernmost tip of the Argentinean province of Misiones (east of the Rio Paraná).
Countries occurrence:
Argentina (Misiones); Brazil (Espírito Santo, Minas Gerais, Paraná, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, São Paulo)
Additional data:
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Bitteti (2001) recorded a populastion density of 16 individuals/km² in the Iguazu National Park, Argentina.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Lowland, submontane and montane tropical and subtropical forest of the Atlantic coast of Brazil; also in gallery forest and secondary forests.

Capuchins are frugivores-insectivores, including a wide variety of fruits, seeds and arthropods, frogs, nestlings and even small mammals, supplemented by stems, flowers and leaves. They are extractive, manipulative foragers (see Izawa 1979; Fernandes 1991). Bittetti (2001) recorded an average home range for 3 groups in the Iguazu National Park, Argentina: 161±77 ha (range 81-293 ha). Mean group size (not including infants) varied over two years from 12.4±7.0 to 16.8±9.5 individuals. Group sizes range from 6 or 7 to 20, with numbers of females exceeding the numbers of males. Males disperse. Both sexes take up linear hierarchies, the top ranking male being dominant to the top-ranking female. Subordinate males are often peripheral (Freese and Oppenmheimer 1981; Fragaszy et al. 2004).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Although quite wide ranging, the species is nonetheless subject to habitat loss and degradation and to hunting across its range. The species is considered a crop pest in some areas (in sugar cane and pine plantations). Otherwise, generally scarce except in the larger protected areas.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species occurs in the following protected areas:

Iguazu National Park (Bitteti 2001)

Iguaçu National Park (170,036 ha)
Morro do Diabo State Park (34,441 ha) (Coimbra-Filho 1976b)
Serra do Brigadeiro State Park (13,120 ha)
Rio Doce State Park (35,973 ha)
Caparaó National Park (31,853 ha) (part Espírito Santo)
Caratinga Biological Station / RPPN Feliciano Miguel Abdala (900 ha)

It is listed on CITES Appendix II.

Citation: Kierulff, M.C.M., Mendes, S.L. & Rylands, A.B. 2015. Sapajus nigritus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T136717A70614145. . Downloaded on 15 December 2017.
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