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Macaca munzala

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA MAMMALIA PRIMATES CERCOPITHECIDAE

Scientific Name: Macaca munzala
Species Authority: Madhusudan & Mishra, 2005
Common Name(s):
English Arunachal Macaque
Taxonomic Notes: Morphology, genetics and taxonomic variation in northeastern Indian macaques, including this taxon, is very poorly known (Sinha et al. 2006a; Chakraborty et al. 2007). Further taxonomic research is required in order to better understand its relationship to M. assamensis and M. thibetana.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered B1ab(v); D ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): Kumar, A., Sinha, A. & Kumar, S.
Reviewer(s): Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)
Justification:
Listed as Endangered as the population size is estimated at <250 mature individuals; and because available information indicates that its extent of occurrence is less than 5,000 km2, its is found in no more than five locations, and there is probably a continuing decline in the number of mature individuals.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This recently described species is reported from the high altitudes of western Arunachal Pradesh, northeastern India (Sinha et al. 2005). The type locality is Zemithang (27°42’ N, 91°43’ E, at 2,180 m), Tawang District in Arunachal Pradesh (Sinha et al. 2005). It is distributed over much of Tawang District, and in the western part of West Kameng, they may also occur in other parts of Arunachal Pradesh, and in adjoining areas of Bhutan and Tibet (China) (Sinha et al. 2005). The extent of occurrence of this species from the available field data is about 3,700 km2 and area of occupancy is about 2,700 km2 (Kumar et al. in press). Macaques resembling M. munzala have recently been observed in areas adjacent to Mouling National Park in Upper Siang District, Arunachal Pradesh; however, the taxonomic identity of these animals needs confirmation (A. Kumar Chhangani pers. comm.).
Countries:
Native:
India (Arunachal Pradesh)
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: According to one source there are currently thirty-five distinct troops known, with at least 569 different individuals (32 troops of 540 individuals in Tawang, and 3 troops of 29 individuals in West Kameng, Kumar et al. in press; Sinha et al. 2006a). Another source, however, has the number of mature individuals as less than 250 (A. Kumar pers. comm.).
Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This species is mostly terrestrial and has been sighted in a range of habitats, including: degraded broadleaf forest, degraded open scrub forest, agricultural areas, undisturbed oak forest, and undisturbed conifer forest (Sinha et al. 2005). This species occurs at altitudes between 2,000 and 3,500 m (Sinha et al. 2005). It is relatively tolerant of humans, and has occasionally been recorded close to villages and crops (Sinha et al. 2005).
Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): These animals are sometimes killed in retaliation for damaging crops (Sinha et al. 2005). In general, however, the local people do not eat primates (Sinha et al. 2005). Some hunting of primates for meat is carried out by non-local government employees (Sinha et al. 2005). According to Sinha et al. (2006b), 54 macaques were killed in one village over a year in West Kameng district. There is not much habitat loss within its range.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: As this is a newly described species, it is not yet listed on the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act of 1972 (Sinha et al. 2005; 2006a), but is covered by CITES Appendix II. Sinha et al. (2005) suggest the establishment of community awareness and conservation programs, as well as the designation of a protected area that is locally appropriate. At the moment it is not known to occur in any official protected areas, its occurrence in Mouling National Park is likely but needs to be confirmed (A. Kumar pers. comm.).

Citation: Kumar, A., Sinha, A. & Kumar, S. 2008. Macaca munzala. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 28 July 2014.
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