|Scientific Name:||Miniopterus schreibersii_new ssp. fuliginosus|
|Species Authority:||(Hodgson, 1835)|
Miniopterus fuliginosus (Hodgson, 1835)
|Taxonomic Notes:||Following Tian et al. (2004) and Appleton, et al. (2004) we split M. schreibersii sensu lato into three species: M. schreibersii (Europe/N. Africa/Near East), M. fuliginosus (Asia) and M. oceanensis (Australia).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Hutson, A.M., Racey, P.A. (Chiroptera Red List Authority) & Chanson, J. (Global Mammal Assessment Team)|
Listed as Least Concern because it is a very widespread, common and adaptable species with no known major threats.
|Range Description:||This widely distributed species ranges from the Caucasus through to South Asia, Peninsular Southeast Asia, China, North and South Korea. It has been recorded also over much of the Philippines, and on the islands of Sumatra, Java and Bali (all Indonesia), and from the island of Borneo (Brunei, Indonesia and Malaysia). In Japan, it is found on Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu, Tsushima Island, and Sado Island (Abe et al., 2005).
Confusion between M. schreibersii and M. magnater makes the mapping of the distribution extremely difficult. Future research may show that this species is less abundant in Southeast Asia than previously thought.
Native:Afghanistan; Armenia (Armenia); Azerbaijan; Bangladesh; Bhutan; Brunei Darussalam; Cambodia; China; Hong Kong; India; Indonesia; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Japan; Kazakhstan; Korea, Democratic People's Republic of; Korea, Republic of; Kyrgyzstan; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Malaysia; Myanmar; Nepal; Pakistan; Philippines; Sri Lanka; Taiwan, Province of China; Tajikistan; Thailand; Turkmenistan; Uzbekistan; Viet Nam
|Upper elevation limit (metres):||2120|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||This species is widely distributed and common. Summer breeding colonies typically number 500-10,000 individuals (formerly up to 100,000 in India). It winters in clusters of at least a hundred individuals. Population trends vary in different parts of the range: in the Middle East it appears to be stable.
It is the second most common bat species in Iran, with large colonies of thousands of individuals (A. Karatash and M. Sharifi pers. comm. 2005), and the population in Iran is probably stable (M. Sharifi pers. comm. 2005), although there is a possible historical record of a mass mortality event in Iran. Populations in the Caucasus are considered near threatened (K. Tsytsulina pers. comm. 2005). In Indonesia, it is a locally common species throughout its range. In Japan it can be found in colonies of over several hundred bats.
|Current Population Trend:||Stable|
|Habitat and Ecology:||It forages in a variety of open and semi-open natural and artificial habitats, including suburban areas. It has an altitudinal range of sea level up to 2,120 m asl in southern parts of its range. It feeds mainly on moths, and occasionally on flies and spiders. It is a colonial species that roosts almost exclusively in caves and mines (although it has occasionally been found in man made tunnels), often in large mixed colonies with other cave-dwelling bat species. Large and warm caves are preferred. Solitary animals and small groups may sometimes occupy other types of shelter. In winter it hibernates in underground sites (usually large caves with a constant microclimate). It is a migrant species which changes its roosts frequently, long-distance movements occur occasionally.|
|Movement patterns:||Full Migrant|
|Congregatory:||Congregatory (and dispersive)|
|Major Threat(s):||There are overall no major threats to this widespread species. In the Caucasus, disturbance caused by tourism in caves is a problem (K. Tsytsulina pers. comm. 2005). There is a possible historical record of an incidence of mass mortality in Iran, and many more mass recent mass mortalities in Europe within the closely related M. schreibersii, as well as in Australia with M. oceanensis. A meeting was held at the 9th European Bat Conference to discuss these incidents. Veterinary investigations in Spain did not identify any disease as the cause of the die offs, and there is increasing belief that the die offs are caused by bad weather in late winter/early spring.|
|Conservation Actions:||The species is found in many protected areas throughout its range. Further studies into the taxonomy and migration routes of this species are needed.|
|Citation:||Chiozza, F. 2008. Miniopterus schreibersii_new ssp. fuliginosus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T136514A4302951. . Downloaded on 29 November 2015.|
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