|Scientific Name:||Mazama temama (Kerr, 1792)|
Cervus sartorii Saussure, 1860
Cervus temama Kerr, 1792
Mazama cerasina Hollister, 1914
Mazama reperticia Goldman, 1913
Mazama tema Rafinesque, 1817
|Taxonomic Notes:||The taxonomy and systematic of Central American brocket deer has been studied by morphological data of collections and cytogenetic analysis, with locality type Mirador Veracruz México by Hershkovitz (1951). This is considered by some authors as a subspecies of Mazama americana (Hershkovitz, 1951). But currently M. temama has been raised to species status (Geist 1998). Tate (1939) classified red brocket deer in two groups (large and small brockets) and allied M. temama in with the small brockets division with a distribution in Central America. Groves and Grubb (1987) also were of the opinion that it be granted species status mainly due to the old karyotype data of Jorge and Benirschke (1977) who segregated it by its karyotype of 2n=50 from Mazama americana which has 2n=68-70. M. t. cerasina and M. t. reperticia are recognized subspecies of M. temama.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Data Deficient ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Bello, J., Reyna, R. & Schipper, J.|
|Reviewer(s):||Zanetti, E.S.Z. & González, S.|
This species is considered to be Data Deficient due to ongoing uncertainty in its taxonomy, distribution, habitat and threats. This species is probably threatened, however, the degree to which is unclear. Until there is some knowledge of what the range of the taxa is in relation to M. americana and where the species remains within the known range, then it is not possible to apply the Red List Categories and Criteria. There is growing concern as to the effects of the numerous possible threats to this species - in some regions it remains only in protected areas while in others is seems to survive outside of protected areas. Hunting could be a serious threat and therefore until the limits to the distribution are better defined it is not possible to say the extent and effect of the threats.
In recent years information has been generated regarding its abundance and/or distribution; however, there is a lack of information regarding these aspects within its entire distribution range. It is a species that is found in preserved tropical rainforest areas but has also been recorded in areas with secondary vegetation. The extent of disturbance to which these species can adapt is not known with certainty, but there are records of sites with large cropland and pasture areas where the presence of this species is low or not present at all. It is unknown whether this species’ density is naturally low or if there are factors that cause these reductions. Mexico has records of hunting as a means of population control since this species is a bean cultivation plague; moreover, its abundance and distribution have been reduced in some areas within the southeast part of Mexico due to catastrophic events such as forest fires.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||Very little is known of the actual distribution and range limits for the Central American Red Brocket. It is presumed to occur in southern México, North and central Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, Panama, and extend into western Colombia. In México there are records for states around the cost of gulf of Mexico and Pacific ocean: Tamaulipas, San Luis Potosí, Veracruz, Oaxaca, Chiapas, Tabasco, Campeche and Quintana Roo. Further field and genetic reserach are required to determine where M. temama seperates from M. americana and vice versa.|
Native:Belize; Colombia; Costa Rica; El Salvador; Guatemala; Honduras; Mexico; Nicaragua; Panama
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Total populations are unknown. There is some information about density but only at local level abundance for Mexico. Including Protected Areas, the estimates were of 0.09 deer/km² in tropical forest (including M. Pandora) (Weber 2005), in cloud forest the estimate was 0.32 individuals/km² (Lira-Torres and Naranjo-Piñera 2003). No reliable estimates exist for Nicaragua, Honduras or Colombia.|
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||The Brocket Deer is considered characteristic of well-preserved high forest sites (Branan and Marchinton 1985, Eisenberg 1989). It occupies perennial forest, cloud forest, sub-perennial forest and low-dry forest (Reyna-Hurtado 2002, Ivan-Lira and Naranjo-Piñera 2003). It can, however, be found at transformed sites such as secondary forests and cropland as well (Bodmer 1989, Bello 2004), but in some conserved areas it avoids deforested areas and agricultural vegetation types (Weber 2005). During three years of camera-trapping in the Cordillera Talamanca region in Costa Rica - the species was found in a variety of native (but not altered) forest and non forest habitats, and from lowlands to paramo (2,800 m asl) (J. Schipper unpublished data). In areas with high hunting intensity, brocket deer also use low flooded forest (Reyna-Hurtado 2002). Its preference for well-preserved sites seems to be a protective strategy, as deer can stand still and hide in thick vegetation when a predator approaches, or run through it without being easily caught (Pinder and Leeuwenberg 1997). Further research is needed to determine the degree of disturbance and isolation of the fragments that they inhabit.|
|Use and Trade:||Harvesting for cultural activities, and principally as a food source could influence their populations levels and behaviour (Reyna-Hurtado 2002).|
|Major Threat(s):||Habitat fragmentation and degradations for agricultural and livestock activities is one of the principal factors in the reduction of their potential habitats and distribution. This also includes natural disasters such as wildfire (Bello 2004). Hunting is a major threat in some areas - especially in and around protected areas. Harvesting for cultural activities, and principally as a food source, could influence their population levels and behaviour (Reyna-Hurtado 2002). Another threat that has existed for a long time is their killing as a pest control in bean croplands (Méndez-Izquierdo and Bello-Gutiérrez 2005).|
The species is listed in CITES Appendix III for Guatemala as M. temama cerasina.
Recommended conservation actions are: further information about habitat status, distribution and abundance, ecological research; study about their importance for human community as uses and harvest levels and their cultural relevance; implementation of management plans and legislations at international and national level.
|Citation:||Bello, J., Reyna, R. & Schipper, J. 2016. Mazama temama. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T136290A22164644.Downloaded on 22 July 2018.|
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