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Eulemur rufifrons

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA MAMMALIA PRIMATES LEMURIDAE

Scientific Name: Eulemur rufifrons
Species Authority: (Bennett, 1833)
Common Name/s:
English Red-fronted Brown Lemur, Bennett's Brown Lemur
Taxonomic Notes: Until recently Eulemur rufifrons was considered to be a junior synonym of E. rufus (e.g., Groves 2005), but genetic and preliminary morphological evidence now suggest that E. rufifrons is distinct (Pastorini et al. 2003, Groves 2006).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor/s: Andrainarivo, C., Andriaholinirina, V.N., Feistner, A., Felix, T., Ganzhorn, J., Garbutt, N., Golden, C., Konstant, B., Louis Jr., E., Meyers, D., Mittermeier, R.A., Perieras, A., Princee, F., Rabarivola, J.C., Rakotosamimanana, B., Rasamimanana, H., Ratsimbazafy, J., Raveloarinoro, G., Razafimanantsoa, A., Rumpler, Y., Schwitzer, C., Thalmann, U., Wilmé, L. & Wright, P.
Reviewer/s: Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)
Justification:
Listed as Near Threatened as the species is thought to have undergone a reduction of 20-25% over the past 24 years (assuming a generation length of 8 years) due primarily to a decline in area and quality of habitat within the known range of the species combined with ongoing hunting. Almost qualifies as threatened under criterion A2cd.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: The Red-fronted Brown Lemur is found both in western and eastern Madagascar. In the west, it is known from the Tsiribihina River south at least to the Fiherenana River near Toliara. The limits of its distribution in eastern Madagascar are not as well defined, but it appears to occur from the Onive and Mangoro Rivers south to the Andringitra Massif, the southern limit of its range probably being the Manampatra River, which separates this subspecies from E. cinereiceps. South-east of the Andringitra Massif, there is a 60-km wide hybrid zone between E. rufifrons and E. cinereiceps at the Iantara River (headwaters of the Manampatrana) (Irwin et al. 2005). A small introduced population of Red-fronted Brown Lemurs (hybridized with E. collaris) also inhabits the Berenty Private Reserve in southern Madagascar. Ranges from sea level to 1,670 m.
Countries:
Native:
Madagascar
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: In the east, Irwin et al. (2005) recorded 22 individuals/km² in Ranomafana National Park. In the west, Sussman (1974) documented densities of 1,120 individuals/km² at Antseranomby, but recent estimates have declined considerably to about 23.9/km² (kelley et al. 2007).
Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Present in moist lowland and montane forest in the east, and dry tropical forest in the west. It has been studied in western Madagascar in the deciduous forests of Antserananomby and Tongobato, in the Kirindy Forest, and in eastern Madagascar in Ranomafana National Park (see Mittermeier et al. 2008, and references therein). Based on these studies, the species has a very adaptable behavioural ecology. Group size varies from four to 17 (with an average size of nine) in the west and from six to 18 (with an average size of eight) in the east. In the west, population density is reported to be very high and home ranges small; in the east, population densities tend to be lower and home ranges as large as 100 ha. Reproduction is seasonal. In western populations, one male typically monopolizes the females of the group, while in the east several males may participate in reproductive pairings. In the west, mating takes place in June, births occur in September and October, and the young are weaned by January.
Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The principal threat is habitat loss due to slash-and-burn agriculture, burning to clear pastureland, fuelwood gathering, and illegal logging. Hunting and trapping are also threats throughout its range.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed on Appendix I of CITES. The Red-fronted Brown Lemur is found in five national parks (Isalo, Ranomafana, Zombitse, Vohibasia and Andringitra), two special reserves (Andranomena and Pic d'Ivohibe), the Analabe Private Reserve in the Menabe region (and in Berenty), and in the Kirindy-Mitea Classified Forest (Mittermeier et al. 2008).
Citation: Andrainarivo, C., Andriaholinirina, V.N., Feistner, A., Felix, T., Ganzhorn, J., Garbutt, N., Golden, C., Konstant, B., Louis Jr., E., Meyers, D., Mittermeier, R.A., Perieras, A., Princee, F., Rabarivola, J.C., Rakotosamimanana, B., Rasamimanana, H., Ratsimbazafy, J., Raveloarinoro, G., Razafimanantsoa, A., Rumpler, Y., Schwitzer, C., Thalmann, U., Wilmé, L. & Wright, P. 2008. Eulemur rufifrons. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 19 April 2014.
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