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Eulemur rufifrons

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA MAMMALIA PRIMATES LEMURIDAE

Scientific Name: Eulemur rufifrons
Species Authority: (Bennett, 1833)
Common Name(s):
English Red-fronted Brown Lemur, Bennett's Brown Lemur
Taxonomic Notes: Until recently Eulemur rufifrons was considered to be a junior synonym of E. rufus (e.g., Groves 2005), but genetic and preliminary morphological evidence now suggest that E. rufifrons is distinct (Pastorini et al. 2003, Groves 2006).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2014
Date Assessed: 2012-07-11
Assessor(s): Andriaholinirina, N., Baden, A., Blanco, M., Chikhi, L., Cooke, A., Davies, N., Dolch, R., Donati, G., Ganzhorn, J., Golden, C., Groeneveld, L.F., Hapke, A., Irwin, M., Johnson, S., Kappeler, P., King, T., Lewis, R., Louis, E.E., Markolf, M., Mass, V., Mittermeier, R.A., Nichols, R., Patel, E., Rabarivola, C.J., Raharivololona, B., Rajaobelina, S., Rakotoarisoa, G., Rakotomanga, B., Rakotonanahary, J., Rakotondrainibe, H., Rakotondratsimba, G., Rakotondratsimba, M., Rakotonirina, L., Ralainasolo, F.B., Ralison, J., Ramahaleo, T., Ranaivoarisoa, J.F., Randrianahaleo, S.I., Randrianambinina, B., Randrianarimanana, L., Randrianasolo, H., Randriatahina, G., Rasamimananana, H., Rasolofoharivelo, T., Rasoloharijaona, S., Ratelolahy, F., Ratsimbazafy, J., Ratsimbazafy, N., Razafindraibe, H., Razafindramanana, J., Rowe, N., Salmona, J., Seiler, M., Volampeno, S., Wright, P., Youssouf, J., Zaonarivelo, J. & Zaramody, A.
Reviewer(s): Schwitzer, C. & Molur, S.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Chiozza, F. & Clark, F.
Justification:

The taxon is in decline due to continuing decline in area, extent and quality of habitat, in addition to exploitation through unsustainable hunting pressure. Eulemur rufifrons is suspected to have undergone a reduction of 20-25% over the past 24 years (three generations, assuming a generation length of 8 years). Due to the close proximity of this value to the Vulnerable category (under criterion A2cd), in addition to suspected future increases in fragmentation, hunting and population decline, the species is listed as Near Threatened.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: The Red-fronted Brown Lemur is found both in western and eastern Madagascar. In the west, it is known from the Tsiribihina River south at least to the Fiherenana River near Toliara. The limits of its distribution in eastern Madagascar are not as well defined, but it appears to occur from the Onive and Mangoro Rivers south to the Andringitra Massif, the southern limit of its range probably being the Manampatra River, which separates this subspecies from E. cinereiceps. South-east of the Andringitra Massif, there is a 60-km wide hybrid zone between E. rufifrons and E. cinereiceps at the Iantara River (headwaters of the Manampatrana) (Irwin et al. 2005). A small introduced population of Red-fronted Brown Lemurs (hybridized with E. collaris) also inhabits the Berenty Private Reserve in southern Madagascar. Ranges from sea level to 1,670 m.
Countries:
Native:
Madagascar
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Eulemur rufifrons has an estimated density of 6.75 individuals/km2 with a total estimated population of 2,228 within Ranomafana National Park (Wright et al. 2012). In the west, Sussman (1974) documented densities of 1,120 individualskm2 at Antseranomby, but recent estimates have declined considerably to about 23.9/km2 (Kelley et al. 2007). In Kirindy Mitea, numbers are suspected to be 20-30 individuals/km(R. Lewis pers. comm.)
Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Present in moist lowland and montane forest in the east, and dry tropical forest in the west. It has been studied in western Madagascar in the deciduous forests of Antserananomby and Tongobato, in the Kirindy Forest, and in eastern Madagascar in Ranomafana National Park (see Mittermeier et al. 2008, and references therein). Based on these studies, the species has a very adaptable behavioural ecology. The species is also noted to move territory. Group size varies from four to 17 (with an average size of nine) in the west and from six to 18 (with an average size of eight) in the east. In the west, population density is reported to be very high and home ranges small; in the east, population densities tend to be lower and home ranges as large as 100 ha. Reproduction is seasonal. In western populations, one male typically monopolizes the females of the group, while in the east several males may participate in reproductive pairings. In the west, mating takes place in June, births occur in September and October, and the young are weaned by January.
Systems: Terrestrial

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This species is hunted for food. Snares have been found in Ranomafana and Menabe.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): This species is threatened by habitat loss due to slash-and-burn agriculture, burning to clear pastureland, fuelwood gathering, and illegal logging. Fire and charcoal production are major threats in areas such as Kirindy Mitea National Park. Hunting and trapping are also threats throughout its range, and in fact this is one of the most commonly hunted lemurs in all of Madagascar.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed on Appendix I of CITES. It is known to occur in five national parks (Andringitra, Isalo, Ranomafana, Kirindy Mitea and Zombitse-Vohibasia), two special reserves (Andranomena and Pic d' Ivohibe), and in the Kirindy Forest (part of the Menabe-Antimena Protected Area) (Mittermeier et al. 2008). There is an additional introduced population of E. collaris / E. rufifrons hybrids in the Berenty Private Reserve. The status of this species in captivity is difficult to determine, owing to taxonomic confusion with E. rufus. However, both E. rufus and E.rufifrons are found in a number of collections world-wide.  




Citation: Andriaholinirina, N., Baden, A., Blanco, M., Chikhi, L., Cooke, A., Davies, N., Dolch, R., Donati, G., Ganzhorn, J., Golden, C., Groeneveld, L.F., Hapke, A., Irwin, M., Johnson, S., Kappeler, P., King, T., Lewis, R., Louis, E.E., Markolf, M., Mass, V., Mittermeier, R.A., Nichols, R., Patel, E., Rabarivola, C.J., Raharivololona, B., Rajaobelina, S., Rakotoarisoa, G., Rakotomanga, B., Rakotonanahary, J., Rakotondrainibe, H., Rakotondratsimba, G., Rakotondratsimba, M., Rakotonirina, L., Ralainasolo, F.B., Ralison, J., Ramahaleo, T., Ranaivoarisoa, J.F., Randrianahaleo, S.I., Randrianambinina, B., Randrianarimanana, L., Randrianasolo, H., Randriatahina, G., Rasamimananana, H., Rasolofoharivelo, T., Rasoloharijaona, S., Ratelolahy, F., Ratsimbazafy, J., Ratsimbazafy, N., Razafindraibe, H., Razafindramanana, J., Rowe, N., Salmona, J., Seiler, M., Volampeno, S., Wright, P., Youssouf, J., Zaonarivelo, J. & Zaramody, A. 2014. Eulemur rufifrons. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 01 September 2014.
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