Plecotus macrobullaris 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Chiroptera Vespertilionidae

Scientific Name: Plecotus macrobullaris Kuzjakin, 1965
Regional Assessments:
Common Name(s):
English Mountain Long-eared Bat
French Oreillard des Alpes, Oreillard montagnard
Spanish Orejudo Alpino
Plecotus alpinus Keifer & Veith, 2002
Plecotus microdontus Spitzenberger, 2002
Taxonomic Notes: Described as a subspecies of P. auritus from northern Ossetia, Russia. Its specific status was first recognized for populations of the Alps, which were described as new species: Plecotus alpinus by Kiefer and Veith (2002) and Plecotus microdontus by Spitzenberger et al. (2002). Later it turned out that these names were younger synonyms of P. macrobullaris (Spitzenberger et al. 2003).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2016-04-25
Assessor(s): Piraccini, R.
Reviewer(s): Pacifici, M. & Cassola, F.
Contributor(s): Hutson, A.M., Aulagnier, S., Juste, J., Karataş, A., Palmeirim, J. & Paunović, M.
Least Concern. Although this species appears to be generally uncommon, with a scattered distribution, it has a fairly large global distribution and is not believed to approach any of the thresholds for listing as threatened according to IUCN Red List Criteria. Roosting habitat is declining because of tourism pressure on caves and transformation of buildings in human settlements in the Alps and Pyrenees. This species was described quite recently and is poorly known; more colonies may well be discovered in the future.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:The Mountain Long-eared Bat (Plecotus macrobullaris) has been recorded from the Pyrenees (Andorra, Spain and France); the Alps from France to Slovenia, Dinaric Alps, Greece including Crete; Corsica; from Anatolia through Caucasus to south Iran; and in Syria (Spitzenberger et al. 2006). Budinsky et al. (2016) recently found a male specimen in a cave in southern Serbia. The altitudinal distribution of this species ranges from sea level to 2,800 m (Garin 2003, Pavlinic and Tvrtkovic 2004).
Countries occurrence:
Albania; Andorra; Armenia; Austria; Azerbaijan; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Croatia; France; Georgia; Greece (Kriti); Iran, Islamic Republic of; Italy; Liechtenstein; Montenegro; Russian Federation; Serbia; Slovenia; Spain; Switzerland; Syrian Arab Republic; Turkey
Additional data:
Upper elevation limit (metres):2800
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:This species was only recognised in 2003, and remains quite poorly known. However, it seems to be generally uncommon, with a fragmented distribution. Individual colonies are composed of few (less that 50) individuals. Fewer than 50 colonies are known, but more are likely to be discovered in the future (Spitzenberger et al. 2003). Molecular analyses have confirmed that subpopulations from different mountain ranges are genetically isolated (Garin et al. 2003).
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:The Mountain Long-eared Bat (Plecotus macrobullaris) is known from a wide array of habitats ranging from lowland to alpine environments (Alberdi et al. 2015). Data on habitat needs of this species are so far controversial: in Switzerland, Rutihauser et al. (2012) reported a positive association of the Mountain Long-eared Bat with deciduous forests and an avoidance of meadows and shrubberies. Conversely, in the Pyrenees, Alberdi et al. (2014) found that feeding and summer roosting habitats of this species consist mainly in ecotones, woodland edges, rural areas, and meadows, whereas dense forested areas are avoided. Its diet consists nearly exclusively of moths (Alberdi et al. 2012). In Croatia The Mountain Long-eared Bat was found in all altitudinal zones from sea level to mountain tops above the tree line. It occupies Mediterranean oak shrub as well as beech and pine forests (Pavlinic and Tvrtkovic 2004). The highest record is 2,800 m (Pyrenees: Garin et al. 2003). In the Eastern Alps maternity roosts are located in attics of churches, winter roosts are not known (Spitzenberger 2002), the highest record here is 1,720 m asl (Spitzenberger 2006). In the western Alps observed up to 2,800 m asl and often roosts in churches (S. Aulagnier pers. comm. 2007).
Generation Length (years):7.6

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): In the European and Asian parts of its range, restoration of old buildings and development of tourism infrastructure is causing habitat loss.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: It is protected by national legislation in most range states. There are also international legal obligations for its protection through the Bonn Convention (Eurobats) and Bern Convention in the range states where these apply. It is included in Annex IV of EU Habitats and Species Directive, and there is some habitat protection through Natura 2000. It is present in several national parks. Recommended actions include surveys to better understand the species' distribution, molecular studies on distance between subpopulations, and protection of roosting sites.

Citation: Piraccini, R. 2016. Plecotus macrobullaris. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T136229A22002229. . Downloaded on 23 July 2018.
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