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Calotriton arnoldi

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA AMPHIBIA CAUDATA SALAMANDRIDAE

Scientific Name: Calotriton arnoldi
Species Authority: Carranza and Amat, 2005

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Critically Endangered B2ab(iii,iv) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2009
Date Assessed: 2008-12-14
Assessor(s): Salvador Carranza, Iñigo Martínez-Solano
Reviewer(s): Cox, N. and Temple, H.J. (Global Amphibian Assessment)
Justification:
Listed as Critically Endangered because its Area of Occupancy is probably less than 10km2, all individuals are in a single location, and the quality of its habitat and the number of mature individuals are probably declining.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is endemic to the El Montseny mountain massif situated in northeastern Spain. It has only been found in seven mountain streams, all within the boundaries of El Montseny Natural Park (Carranza and Amat 2005). It is found between 700 and 1,200m asl.
Countries:
Native:
Spain
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Its population is thought to number between 1,000 and 1,500 mature individuals, with an estimated rate of decline of 15% over the last 10 years. Preliminary demographic studies have been carried out in two streams. In three streams Calotriton arnoldi occurs at very low densities and in one stream it is extinct above 1,000m asl. Populations are declining in the upper parts of all the streams as the water table is being lowered. The population of C. arnoldi is divided into two sub-populations that occur on each side of a river valley. These two sub-population groups are genetically and morphologically differentiated (Carranza and Amat 2005).
Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: It lives in oligotrophic, cold (below 15°C) fast running waters, preferentially in beech forest (Fagus sylvatica) but also in holm oak forest (Quercus ilex), with patches of Algnus glutinosa (Carranza and Amat 2005). Neither juvenile nor adult C. arnoldi have been found on land (Carranza and Amat 2005). If this behaviour is confirmed, the only way that contact among populations could occur is by moving down one watercourse and then up other tributaries of the same river system. It therefore seems possible that there is a considerable degree of isolation between the populations.
Systems: Freshwater

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The drying out of mountain streams is the most immediate threat to this species. Large amounts of water are being extracted from El Montseny, and this is bottled and sold widely in Spain and Europe. As a result, El Montseny is drying out and the distribution of Calotriton arnoldi is being reduced dramatically. The low population size of the species could also be due to past human alteration of its original habitat (Carranza and Amat 2005). The species might also be affected by global warming. For instance, the beech (Fagus sylvatica) forest, an excellent habitat for C. arnoldi, has shifted upwards by 70m at the highest altitudes (1,600-1,700m asl) since 1945, and is being replaced by holm oak (Quercus ilex) forest at lower altitudes (800-1,400 m) (Peñuelas and Boada 2003). In other words, the most favoured woodland habitat of the species is moving up into areas where the streams are drying out.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: It occurs in the El Montseny Natural Park, though this area is not managed to conserve this species. Research is needed to determine the species' ecological requirements, and to determine management options. A captive breeding programme started in 2007 and is being carried out by the Departament de Medi Ambien of the Generalitat de Catalunya, Spain. Measures are urgently needed to protect this species' habitat (e.g. to prevent mountain streams from drying out). This species is protected under Appendix II of the Bern Convention and Annex IV of the EU Habitats Directive (as part of C. asper).

Citation: Salvador Carranza, Iñigo Martínez-Solano 2009. Calotriton arnoldi. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 25 October 2014.
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