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Mixophyes iteratus

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA AMPHIBIA ANURA MYOBATRACHIDAE

Scientific Name: Mixophyes iteratus
Species Authority: Straughan, 1968
Common Name(s):
English Giant Barred-frog, Giant Barred River-frog

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered B2ab(ii,iii,iv,v) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2004
Date Assessed: 2004-04-30
Assessor(s): Harry Hines, David Newell, John Clarke, Jean-Marc Hero, Ed Meyer
Reviewer(s): Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson and Neil Cox)
Justification:
Listed as Endangered, because its Area of Occupancy is less than 500 km2, its distribution is severely fragmented, and there is continuing decline in its its Area of Occupancy, in the extent and quality of its habitat, in the number of subpopulations, and in the number of mature individuals.
History:
2002 Endangered
1996 Endangered
1994 Insufficiently Known (Groombridge 1994)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species, an Australian endemic, is distributed from Belli Creek near Eumundi, south-east Queensland, south to Warrimoo in mid-eastern New South Wales (Hines, Mahony and McDonald 1999). It is currently known from mid to low altitudes below 610m asl. In south-east Queensland, it is currently known from scattered locations in the Mary River catchments downstream to about Kenilworth, Upper Stanley River, Caboolture River and Coomera River (Hines, Mahony and McDonald 1999).
Countries:
Native:
Australia
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: During the early 1980s, the giant barred-frog declined and disappeared from at least two streams in the Conondale Range (Corben, in McDonald 1991). The Bunya Mount (Straughan 1966) and Cunningham’s Gap (Straughan 1966) previously supported this species, but these and nearby sites have recently been the subject of targeted surveys and intensive monitoring without locating the species (Hines, Mahony and McDonald 1999). Assessing the extent of the decline is difficult because of the lack of baseline data on its distribution and abundance (Hines, Mahony and McDonald 1999). The species has suffered major declines in the southern portion of its range in the Sydney Basin Region (Hines, Mahony and McDonald 1999; White 2000) where extant populations were recorded at only two of the 14 historical sites surveyed (White 2000). There are no recent records from the Blue Mountains and the species is currently only known from five populations in the Watagan Mountains area (White 2000). A population was recently located in the southern Nambucca River catchments (NSW NPWS 1994). North of this there is currently a large population in the Dorrigo-Coffs Harbour area, North Washpool and Bungawalbin State Forest (Hines, Mahony and McDonald 1999). In far north-east New South Wales, it is known from only three broad areas (Mebbin, Whian Whian and Richmond Range), despite intensive surveys (Goldingay, Newell and Graham 1999). Goldingay, Newell and Graham (1999) reported that the density of these populations was relatively low with an average abundance of 4.2 individuals per 100m of stream transect between 1997 and 1998 and an average of 3.4 individuals over the same transects in 1999 (Goldingay, Newell and Graham 1999).
Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This species occurs in upland and lowland rainforest and wet sclerophyll forest, and adjacent farmland (Ingram and McDonald 1993). Populations have been found in disturbed areas with riparian strips including cattle farms and regenerating logged areas (Hero and Shoo pers. obs.). They have also been recorded from eucalypt plantations (Lemckert and Morse 1999) and in streams within partially to nearly completely cleared lands (Lemckert and Brassil 2000; Lemckert 2002). It is a stream-breeding species. Eggs are deposited out of water, under overhanging banks or on steep banks of large pools (Knowles et al. 1998). The stream microhabitats used by the species for oviposition are limited (Knowles et al. 1998). Hero and Fickling (1996) and Morrison and Hero (2002) reported clutch sizes for the species as 4184 (n=1) and 1343-3471 (n=13), respectively, and egg diameter ranges between 1.7 and 1.8mm (n=5) (Morrison and Hero 2002). Larvae are described in Meyer, Hines and Hero (2001) and Anstis (2000).
Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Many sites where this species occurs are the lower reaches of streams, which have had major disturbances such as clearing, timber harvesting and urban development in their headwaters (Hines, Mahony and McDonald 1999). In the Dorrigo area, Lemckert (1999) found that it was less abundant in recently logged areas and sites where there was little undisturbed forest. The impacts of feral animals, domestic stock, weed invasion and disturbance to riparian vegetation, all potential threats to current populations, are unknown (Hines, Mahony and McDonald 1999). Populations now generally exist in small, isolated patches of forest. The effect this may have on genetic variation within populations and the general health of individuals is unknown. The species does colonize and use plantations and vegetated streams in otherwise cleared agricultural lands. This is positive for the survival of the species, but also indicates that such sites can be of some significance and any clearing of this vegetation may be of some significance.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed as endangered in Australian legislation. Much of its habitat is protected within national parks and state forests. Research and monitoring protocols are in place for this species.

Citation: Harry Hines, David Newell, John Clarke, Jean-Marc Hero, Ed Meyer 2004. Mixophyes iteratus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 02 August 2014.
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