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Platichthys flesus

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA ACTINOPTERYGII PLEURONECTIFORMES PLEURONECTIDAE

Scientific Name: Platichthys flesus
Species Authority: (Linnaeus, 1758)
Common Name(s):
English Baltic Flounder, Butt, European Flounder, Fluke, Mud Flounder, River Flounder, White Fluke
French Flet, Flet d'Europe
Spanish Platija, Platija Europea, Platixa, Solla
Synonym(s):
Flesus vulgaris Moreau, 1881
Flesus vulgaris Moreau, 1881
Platessa carnaria Brown, 1830
Platessa carnaria Brown, 1830
Platessa glabra Rathke, 1837
Platessa glabra Rathke, 1837
Platichthys flesus bogdanovi (Sandeberg, 1878)
Platichthys flesus bogdanovi (Sandeberg, 1878)
Platichthys flesus flesus (Linnaeus, 1758)
Platichthys flesus flesus (Linnaeus, 1758)
Platichthys flesus luscus (Pallas, 1814)
Platichthys flesus luscus (Pallas, 1814)
Platichthys flesus marmorata Nordmann, 1840
Platichthys flesus marmorata Nordmann, 1840
Platichthys flesus trachurus (Duncker, 1892)
Platichthys flesus trachurus (Duncker, 1892)
Pleuronectes bogdanovii Sandeberg, 1878
Pleuronectes bogdanovii Sandeberg, 1878
Pleuronectes flesoides Pontoppidan, 1766
Pleuronectes flesoides Pontoppidan, 1766
Pleuronectes flesus Linnaeus, 1758
Pleuronectes flesus Linnaeus, 1758
Pleuronectes flesus baltica Suvorov, 1925
Pleuronectes flesus baltica Suvorov, 1925
Pleuronectes flesus caninensis Suvorov, 1929
Pleuronectes flesus caninensis Suvorov, 1929
Pleuronectes flesus leiurus Duncker, 1892
Pleuronectes flesus leiurus Duncker, 1892
Pleuronectes flesus luscus Pallas, 1814
Pleuronectes flesus luscus Pallas, 1814
Pleuronectes flesus septentrionalis Berg, 1949
Pleuronectes flesus septentrionalis Surorov, 1925
Pleuronectes flesus septentrionalis Surorov, 1925
Pleuronectes flesus septentrionalis Berg, 1949
Pleuronectes flesus trachurus Duncker, 1892
Pleuronectes flesus trachurus Duncker, 1892
Pleuronectes italicus Günther, 1862
Pleuronectes italicus Günther, 1862
Pleuronectes luscus Pallas, 1814
Pleuronectes luscus Pallas, 1814
Pleuronectes passer Linnaeus, 1758
Pleuronectes passer Linnaeus, 1758
Pleuronectes roseus Shaw, 1796
Pleuronectes roseus Shaw, 1796

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2009-02-04
Assessor(s): Munroe, T.A.
Reviewer(s): Collen, B., Richman, N., Beresford, A., Chenery, A. & Ram, M.
Contributor(s): De Silva, R., Milligan, H., Lutz, M., Batchelor, A., Jopling, B., Kemp, K., Lewis, S., Lintott, P., Sears, J., Wilson, P. & Smith, J. and Livingston, F.
Justification:
Platichthys flesus has been assessed as Least Concern. This species has a broad geographic range in which it is reported as common. Despite some signficant threats, harvesting and chemical pollution, these are not thought to pose a signficant threat to the global population at this time. However it is recommended that systematic monitoring is undertaken to determine stock status across the entire range.
History:
2008 Least Concern (IUCN 2008)
2008 Least Concern

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This natural range of Platichthys flesus extends from the White Sea to the Mediterranean and the Black Sea. Due to accidental introductions in ballast water, it may also be found around North America.
Countries:
Native:
Albania; Algeria; Belgium; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia; Denmark; Egypt; Estonia; Finland; France; Germany; Gibraltar; Greece; Ireland; Israel; Italy; Latvia; Lebanon; Libya; Lithuania; Malta; Morocco; Netherlands; Norway; Poland; Portugal; Romania; Russian Federation; Slovenia; Spain; Sweden; Syrian Arab Republic; Tunisia; Turkey; Ukraine; United Kingdom
Regionally extinct:
Czech Republic
Introduced:
Canada; Iran, Islamic Republic of; United States
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Introduced:
Arctic Sea; Atlantic – eastern central; Atlantic – northeast; Mediterranean and Black Sea
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Platichthys flesus is common throughout its range.
Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Platichthys flesus is common around the British Isles, where it is typically found resting on the muddy substrate of estuaries. It has been found at a depth range of 1-100 m. It migrates into the open sea to breed from March to June, during which time it can migrate up to 300 km offshore, although it will more often migrate just 30 km. The larvae feed on copepods and diatoms and gradually shift to a diet of mysids, decapods, crustaceans, polychaetes, and bivalves. The young then return to estuarine waters, where they live on the bottom until they are ready to migrate and spawn.
Systems: Freshwater; Marine

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This species is commericially harvested across most of its range, and utilised as a human food source.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Due to the close association of Platichthys flesus with estuarine waters and the benthic invertebrate fauna within these habitats, it has been impacted by chemical pollution within these sediments. In particular, xenoestrogens, which occur in domestic, industrial and agricultural waste, have been noted to have a negative effect on this species, causing the occurrence of intersex specimens. Intersex individuals are caught in low, but constant amounts (Lye et al. 1998). The effects of xenoestrogen are markedly lower further from the shore (Vethaak et al. 2005).

In addition, this is a commercially important food fish, with some of the most important fisheries existing in Baltic and Danish waters. The total landings for 1999 were 11,879 t, with Denmark and the Netherlands contributing the greatest landings of 3,528 t and 3,159 t respectively.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: There are no known species-specific conservation measures in place for Platichthys flesus. However, it may occur in a number of marine protected areas, affording it some protection from harvesting and high loadings of chemical waste.

It is recommended that systematic monitoring is undertaken to determine stock status across the entire range.

Citation: Munroe, T.A. 2010. Platichthys flesus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 28 November 2014.
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