|Scientific Name:||Luciobarbus capito|
|Species Authority:||(Güldenstädt, 1773)|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable A2cd ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Freyhof, J. & Kottelat, M.|
|Reviewer(s):||Bogutskaya, N., & Smith, K. (IUCN Freshwater Biodiversity Unit)|
In the past 30 years (three generations), since 1976, the species has become extirpated from a large part of its range (about 20%), the Aral Sea, due to intensive water abstraction. Now the species may only occur in a few reservoirs in the Amu Darya and Syr Darya (tributaries to the Aral).
In the western Caspian Sea the semi-anadromous population has declined, due to the lack of spawning sites and poaching, but it is still frequent in the southern Caspian tributaries in Azerbaidjan and Iran. There is still L. capito populations in the upper Arax in Turkey.
Overall, there is a continuing to decline due to expanding hydropower development, overfishing and strong ecological impacts on Caspian and Aral Sea basins. It is suspected that the total population has declined by at least 30% in the past 30 years.
|Range Description:||Caspian basin, for spawning migrates up larger tributaries of western and southern coasts, from Volga southward to Atrek (Iran). Was always very rare in Volga. Aral basin, in Amu Darya, Syr Darya and Chu drainages, extirpated in the Aral Sea.|
Native:Afghanistan; Armenia (Armenia); Azerbaijan; Georgia; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Russian Federation; Tajikistan; Turkey; Turkmenistan; Uzbekistan
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Declined sharpley due to damming in the 1950's and 1960's in the Caspian Sea. In the Aral sea the species declined due to the shrinking (increased salinity) of the Aral sea (started in 1970s to present) and damming of its tibutaries (1950's to 1970's).|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
At sea, mostly close to shores. Forages also in estuaries. Spawns in lowland streams and rivers on sand-gravel bottom, usually in strong current.
Semi-anadromous but rarely landlocked in reservoirs. Spawns for the first time at 3-7 years, females later than males, over 200 mm SL. Spawns in April-August. Males are annual spawners, females apparently spawn every 2-3 years. Semi-anadromous populations start migration in late summer-autumn and spawn following spring, but some enter rivers in early spring and spawn same year. Migrate to uppermost tributaries of rivers. Landlocked populations migrate just before spawning to upper stretches of tributaries, or spawn in lakes and reservoirs on sand to mud bottom. Female lays 15,000-125,000 light grey eggs. Larvae feed on zooplankton and small benthic invertebrates. Juveniles and adults feed on invertebrates, algae, detritus, plant material, and small fishes.
|Major Threat(s):||Historically dam construction and overfishing was a threat, increased salinity in the Aral sea caused the species to become extirpated. Currently the main threat is overfishing (illegal) in the Caspian sea.|
|Conservation Actions:||Fishing is banned in the Caspian Sea.|
|Citation:||Freyhof, J. & Kottelat, M. 2008. Luciobarbus capito. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 27 March 2015.|
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