|Scientific Name:||Lota lota|
|Species Authority:||(Linnaeus, 1758)|
|Taxonomic Notes:||The genus Lota is in a need of critical revision. Populations from eastern Siberia and North America represent a distinct species, L. maculosa.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||Freyhof, J. & Kottelat, M.|
|Reviewer/s:||Bogutskaya, N., & Smith, K. (IUCN Freshwater Biodiversity Unit)|
A widespread species but locally threatened by river regulation.
|Range Description:||Europe: from Loire drainage (France) eastward to White, Barents and Arctic Sea basins; upper Volga drainage; southeastern Caspian basin; rivers draining to Black Sea; Rhône drainage (France); in Italy, native only in Po drainage; eastern England (now extirpated). In Siberia eastward to River Lena. Originally absent from Iberian Peninsula, central and southern Italy, Adriatic basin, Greece, Ireland, western and northern Great Britain and western France.|
Native:Austria; Azerbaijan; Belarus; Belgium; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; China; Croatia; Czech Republic; Denmark; Estonia; Finland; France; Germany; Hungary; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Italy; Kazakhstan; Latvia; Liechtenstein; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Moldova; Mongolia; Montenegro; Netherlands; Norway; Poland; Romania; Russian Federation; Serbia (Serbia); Slovakia; Slovenia; Sweden; Switzerland; Ukraine
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
All well oxygenated flowing waters and large lakes. Known from estuaries of large lowland rivers as well as from small mountain streams.
Generally nocturnal. Males reproduce for the first time at two years, females at three in Central Europe. Spawns in November-March, at temperatures below 4°C. May undertake short spawning migrations. Spawns at night, in groups of up to 20 interlaced individuals forming a ball about 60 cm in diameter constantly moving and rolling on the bottom, releasing eggs and sperm. Eggs are semipelagic, slightly sticky and 1.2-1.8 mm in diameter. Eggs hatch after 40-70 days. Larvae are positively phototactic, float below surface in March-April. After about two months, juveniles are benthic, grow rapidly, reach about 80 mm SL within first year. In contrast to most freshwater fish, very active during winter even below ice cover. Larvae feed on drifting invertebrates or zooplankton. Juveniles and adults feed on large invertebrates and small fish.
|Major Threat(s):||No major threats known.|
|Conservation Actions:||No information.|
|Citation:||Freyhof, J. & Kottelat, M. 2008. Lota lota. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 19 May 2013.|
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