|Scientific Name:||Benthophilus macrocephalus|
|Species Authority:||(Pallas, 1787)|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Freyhof, J. & Kottelat, M.|
|Reviewer(s):||Bogutskaya, N., & Smith, K. (IUCN Freshwater Biodiversity Unit)|
A widespread species with no known major widespread threats.
|Range Description:||Lower reaches and deltas of Volga, Ural, Samur, Terek (Berg, 1949; Ragimov, 1966, 1981, 1985а; Vasilieva, 1983, 2000). In Central Caspian along the western coast, and in South Caspian further eastward to Gorgan Bay (ZISP and IZA collections). We suppose that the species does not occur along the eastern coast of Central Caspian Sea; reports on its distribution there most probably refer to the later described B. mahmudbejovi.|
Native:Azerbaijan; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Kazakhstan; Russian Federation; Turkmenistan
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||One of the most abundant species in North Caspian.|
|Current Population Trend:||Unknown|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
Shallow coastal waters and estuaries, usually at 0.5-10 m depth, over mud bottom; lower reaches of rivers. Widely distributed but rare. During warm seasons prefers coastal waters down to 10 m. In northern Caspian Sea, moves to deeper areas (20-25 m) in winter.
Lives about one year. Forms schools during spawning season (April-July) in coastal shallows over hard mud bottom with mollusc shells. Females lay eggs in at least two portions into empty shells. Feeds mostly on molluscs and fish (small gobies), also worms and crustaceans.
|Major Threat(s):||Sensitive to oil pollution.|
|Conservation Actions:||No information.|
|Citation:||Freyhof, J. & Kottelat, M. 2008. Benthophilus macrocephalus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T135656A4172098. . Downloaded on 14 February 2016.|
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