|Scientific Name:||Salmo ezenami|
|Species Authority:||Berg, 1948|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Critically Endangered B1ab(iii,v)+2ab(iii,v) ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Freyhof, J. & Kottelat, M.|
|Reviewer(s):||Bogutskaya, N., & Smith, K. (IUCN Freshwater Biodiversity Unit)|
The species is known only from Lake Kezenoi-am (2.4 km²) in the northern Caucasus where it is being impacted by the introduction of Squalius cephalus, which feeds on its fry. Prior to the introduction of Gobio holurus and Squalius cephalus, S. ezenami was the only fish in the lake. Levels of harvesting are unknown as the area is a war zone (Chechnya).
|Range Description:||Russia: Lake Kezenoi-am (formerly Eizenam (Daghestan)) in northern Caucasus at 1870 m above sea level. In 1963, introduced in Lake Mochokh (Daghestan), probably established.|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
Lake Kezenoi-am is a mountain lake, 2.4 km²,with a maximum depth of 74 m,, temperatures about 5°C below 20 m and 5-18°C in upper layers in summer, covered by ice in winter, high oxygen concentrations down to bottom year-round and low plankton density. Spawns in lake, close to underwater springs; large-sized form probably migrates to tributaries. Prior to the introduction of Gobio holurus and Squalius cephalus, S. ezenami was the only fish in the lake.
Lacustrine, migrates to tributaries. Two forms are known: small-size (adults 160-260 mm SL, 200-350 g) and large-size (adults 380-1130 mm SL, over 1 kg). Males reproduce for the first time at two years, females at three. Spawning period extends over almost entire year. Young juveniles feed mostly on gammarids, chironomid larvae; larger juveniles and adults feed on molluscs, benthic invertebrates and fry; largest individuals are mostly piscivorous, especially since the introduction of G. holurus.
|Major Threat(s):||Introduction of alien species (Squalius cephalus), which feeds on its fry. The region is hard to access as it is a war zone (Chechnya) so levels of harvesting are unknown.|
|Conservation Actions:||No information.|
|Citation:||Freyhof, J. & Kottelat, M. 2008. Salmo ezenami. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 30 June 2015.|
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