|Scientific Name:||Esox lucius|
|Species Authority:||Linnaeus, 1758|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||Freyhof, J. & Kottelat, M.|
|Reviewer/s:||Bogutskaya, N., & Smith, K. (IUCN Freshwater Biodiversity Unit)|
A widespread species with no known major widespread threats, however some local populations are impacted by habitat alterations.
|Range Description:||Caspian, Black, Baltic, White, Barents, Arctic, North and Aral Seas and Atlantic basins, southwest to Adour drainage; Mediterranean basin, in Rhône drainage and northern Italy. Widely distributed in North America and Siberia eastward to Anadyr drainage (Bering Sea basin). Historically absent from Iberian Peninsula, Mediterranean France, central Italy, southern and western Greece, eastern Adriatic basin, Iceland, western Norway and northern Scotland. Now widely introduced and translocated throughout Europe.|
Native:Andorra; Armenia (Armenia); Austria; Azerbaijan; Belarus; Belgium; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Canada; China; Croatia; Czech Republic; Denmark; Estonia; Finland; France; Georgia; Germany; Greece; Holy See (Vatican City State); Hungary; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Ireland; Italy; Jersey; Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Latvia; Liechtenstein; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Moldova; Mongolia; Montenegro; Netherlands; Norway; Poland; Romania; Russian Federation; San Marino; Serbia (Serbia); Slovakia; Slovenia; Spain; Sweden; Switzerland; Turkey; Turkmenistan; Ukraine; United Kingdom; United States (Georgia); Uzbekistan
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
In a wide variety of habitats with aquatic or periodically flooded vegetation. Often semi-anadromous in part of northern Baltic basin with lower salinity.
Males reproduce for the first time at 170-350 mm SL, females at 250-400 mm SL, at 1-6 years. Reproduction closely related to the presence of submerged vegetation. Spawns in late winter or early spring, between February in the south and June in the north, when temperature rises above 5°C. Several males court a single female. Eggs are deposited in flooded areas and on submerged vegetation over a period of 2-5 days. Juvenile survival is negatively related to biomass of older individuals and positively related to the area of the patches covered by submerged vegetation. Feeds on various small vertebrates, predominantly fish, and large invertebrates as decapod crustaceans. Cannibalism is common. In arctic lakes, it is sometimes the only fish species in a given water body; in such cases, juveniles feed on invertebrates and terrestrial vertebrates; large individuals are predominantly cannibals.
|Major Threat(s):||No major threats known.|
|Conservation Actions:||No information.|
|Citation:||Freyhof, J. & Kottelat, M. 2008. Esox lucius. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 25 May 2013.|
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