|Scientific Name:||Ballerus ballerus|
|Species Authority:||(Linnaeus, 1758)|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Kottelat, M. & Smith, K.|
A widespread species with no known major widespread threats. However, locally threatened due to habitat alterations along river banks and degradation of lowland wetlands.
European Union 27 = LC. Same rationale as above.
|Range Description:||Large rivers draining to Baltic Sea (absent in northern Sweden and Finland north of 62°N), North Sea (Weser, Elbe), Black Sea, Sea of Azov (Don) and Caspian Sea (abundant in Volga, rare in Ural).|
Native:Austria; Belarus; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia; Czech Republic; Estonia; Finland; Georgia; Germany; Hungary; Italy; Kazakhstan; Latvia; Lithuania; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Moldova; Montenegro; Netherlands; Poland; Romania; Russian Federation; Serbia (Serbia); Slovakia; Slovenia; Sweden; Ukraine
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
Large lowland rivers with backwaters; also in eutrophic lowland lakes. Spawns on submerged vegetation along shores of rivers or in backwaters. Also reported to spawn on gravel in moderate current.
Lives more than 10 years. Spawns for the first time at 3-4 years and about 150 mm SL. Most individuals spawn several times during their life. Spawns in spring (March-April in lower Danube, April-early May in Baltic, May-June in Volga delta), when temperature reaches 10°C (8-12°C in lower Danube). Spawning period short, usually only 1-2 weeks. Females spawn once a year. Males often defend spawning territories along shoreline. In mature males, sides of body above anal with nuptial tubercles. May undertake long migrations upriver to suitable spawning sites. Juveniles in backwaters and flooded zones along rivers. Enters freshened parts of seas to forage. Feeds predominantly on zooplankton in open water of backwaters and other still water bodies.
|Use and Trade:||It is harvested for human consumption.|
|Major Threat(s):||No major threats known.|
|Conservation Actions:||No information available.|
|Citation:||Freyhof, J. 2013. Ballerus ballerus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 23 October 2014.|
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