|Scientific Name:||Liza aurata|
|Species Authority:||(Risso, 1810)|
Mugil auratus Risso, 1810
Mugil breviceps Valenciennes, 1836
Mugil cryptocheilos Valenciennes, 1836
Mugil lotreganus Nardo, 1847
Mugil maderensis Lowe, 1839
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Freyhof, J. & Kottelat, M.|
|Reviewer(s):||Bogutskaya, N., & Smith, K. (IUCN Freshwater Biodiversity Unit)|
A widespread species with no known major widespread threats.
|Range Description:||Mediterranean, Black Sea and Eastern Atlantic from Cape Verde and Senegal to southern Norway and British Isles (not reaching southern Baltic); northern Red Sea. Introduced in Caspian Sea.|
Native:Albania; Algeria; Belgium; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia; Cyprus; Denmark; Egypt; Faroe Islands; France; Georgia; Germany; Gibraltar; Greece; Guernsey; Ireland; Isle of Man; Israel; Italy; Jersey; Lebanon; Libya; Mauritania; Monaco; Montenegro; Morocco; Netherlands; Norway; Palestinian Territory, Occupied; Poland; Portugal; Romania; Russian Federation; Senegal; Serbia (Serbia); Slovenia; Spain; Sweden; Syrian Arab Republic; Tunisia; Turkey; Ukraine; United Kingdom; Western Sahara
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
Pelagic near shore, sometimes in lagoons and estuaries, rarely into freshwaters. Among Mugilidae recorded from European freshwaters, this is the least tolerant of freshwater. Spawns at sea.
Usually lives in schools. Spawns in September-November. Juveniles move to coastal lagoons and estuaries in winter and especially in spring. Juveniles feed on zooplankton, larger individuals feed on algae, vegetal detritus, and sediment.
|Major Threat(s):||No major threats known.|
|Conservation Actions:||No information.|
|Citation:||Freyhof, J. & Kottelat, M. 2008. Liza aurata. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 18 December 2014.|
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