|Scientific Name:||Rutilus heckelii (Nordmann, 1840)|
|Taxonomic Notes:||While R. heckelii was not accepted as a valid species by most authors, recent molecular studies strongly support the validity of this species.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern (Regional assessment) ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Kottelat, M. & Smith, K.|
The species is very abundant especially in the Azov Sea basin, however it is currently undergoing a population decline due to the increasing levels of salinity in the limans and estuaries of the northern Black Sea basin, this is expected to increase in the future as water abstraction and droughts increase and due to over exploitation. The species also declined due to blocking of almost all its spawning rivers by the construction of dams during the 1950s and 1960s. However the species is still widespread and it is suspected that the population decline (or future decline) is at a rate that would qualify for a threatened or Near Threatened category.
European Union 27 = LC. Within the European Union, the species is found in the Danube delta, coastal streams south of the Danube in Romania and in Greek Lake Volvi. It must be suspected that roach populations from Bulgarian coastal streams and from the Aegean tributaries in Greece east of Lake Volvi also belong to this species. It is therefore assessed as LC as already the Romanian and Greek lake Volvi populations are large and there is no obvious threat. However, EU populations will be impacted by increasing salinity, climate change and water abstraction in the future but do actually not qualify for a threat category yet.
|Range Description:||Tributaries of Aegean Sea east of Lake Volvi and rivers draining to the northern Black and Azov Seas, entering all rivers in that area.|
Native:Bulgaria; Greece; Moldova; Romania; Russian Federation; Turkey; Ukraine
|Population:||Reported to decline in population in the 1950s and 1960s. Currently declining but still abundant especially in the Azov Sea.|
|Current Population Trend:||Unknown|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Habitat: |
Spends most of year in shallow brackish coastal waters. While at sea, adults are most abundant at 2.5-4 m depth and 2-4 m during summer. Enters freshwater of estuaries, lagoons and lower reaches of large rivers to spawn.
Semi-anadromous, riverine and lacustrine populations. Anadromous populations starts approaching coasts in August and entering rivers in September, with a peak in October. Ceases migration by end of November and overwinters in main river or estuaries. Spawning migration resumes with breaking up of ice in March (Dniepr). Spawns in April-May. Adults return to estuaries to forage immediately after spawning. Juveniles migrate to estuaries during first summer (August).
|Movement patterns:||Full Migrant|
|Use and Trade:||This species is harvested for human consumption.|
|Major Threat(s):||Currently the species is threatened by the increasing salinity of the limans and estuaries in the northern Black Sea basin, due to water abstraction and drought. The species was also heavily impacted in the 1950s and 1960s by the construction of large dams.|
|Conservation Actions:||No information available.|
|Citation:||Freyhof, J. 2011. Rutilus heckelii. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2011: e.T135550A4143209.Downloaded on 19 January 2018.|
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