|Scientific Name:||Alburnus chalcoides (Güldenstädt, 1772)|
|Taxonomic Notes:||A morphologically variable species. This variability has usually been considered to be an adaptation to different habitats, but our data suggest that this is probably due to several species being confused under the name A. chalcoides.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Freyhof, J. & Kottelat, M.|
|Reviewer(s):||Bogutskaya, N., & Smith, K. (IUCN Freshwater Biodiversity Unit)|
Almost all long-distance migrating populations were lost (during 1950s and 1960s) as they were no longer able to reach spawning sites because of dams. It now survives in small water courses and as landlocked populations in some reservoirs, the Caspian Sea population now spawns below the dams. It is suspected that the species will further decline because of expanding hydropower development, strong ecological impacts on Caspian Sea and potentially overfishing, however not at a rate that will qualify for a threatened category in the next three generations (10 years).
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||Caspian (mostly western and southwestern coast, from Ural, Volga to Safid-Rud drainages), and Aral Sea basins.|
Native:Azerbaijan; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Kazakhstan; Russian Federation
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The population declined in the 1950's and 1960's due to the damming of the rivers which blocked access to spawning sites. However they have formed stable landlocked populations and can still spawn below the dams.|
|Current Population Trend:||Unknown|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Habitat: |
Lower parts of rivers, coastal lakes, estuaries, and adjacent areas of seas where salinity is lowered by large inflow of freshwater. In estuaries, lives close to surface and tolerates salinities up to 12 ‰. Earlier migrated for long distances upstream, up to upper reaches of streams in piedmont and montane zones. Spawns in small rivers or streams with heavy current on gravel bottom. Landlocked populations in reservoirs spawn in reservoir tributaries.
Semi-anadromous and landlocked populations. Spawns for the first time at 2-4 years, females one year later than males. Anadromous populations start entering rivers in autumn (September in Kura) and move upstream during winter and/or in spring. Spawns in May-September in water 0.2-0.7 m deep, current about 1 m/s, and 18-26°C, often with much splashing. Males seem to be partly territorial. Males assemble at spawning grounds and wait for ripe females, which arrive later. Eggs are sticky and adhere on pebbles or stones. Embryonic development lasts 2-3 days, larvae first staying among gravel for 8-11 days, then actively migrating to shallows and backwaters. Adults migrate back to sea, lakes or estuaries soon after spawning to forage. Young juveniles migrate downriver in autumn of same year or next spring. Larvae and young juveniles feed on zooplankton, algae and insect larvae, adults mainly on planktonic crustaceans, terrestrial insects, and small fish.
|Generation Length (years):||3-4|
|Movement patterns:||Full Migrant|
|Major Threat(s):||Currently overfishing and pollution in the Caspian Sea could be a threat to the species.|
|Conservation Actions:||No information.|
|Citation:||Freyhof, J. & Kottelat, M. 2008. Alburnus chalcoides. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T135499A4133441.Downloaded on 20 March 2018.|
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